Dictionary of pastellists before 1800
INVENTORS, WRITERS AND SUPPLIERS
This index lists a number of inventors, manufacturers, vendors, conservators, curators and authors who have been involved in technical aspects of the art of pastel, including authors of the most important early treatises and some critics who have been particularly influential. A selection of modern pastellists who copied works in the Dictionary is also included. Research in this area is still in progress. No attempt is made systematically to list all framemakers and artists' suppliers; rather this list includes only those specifically known to have been connected with pastel; the purpose is to direct users to other sources of further information. Numerous pastellists were themselves technical innovators and pioneers, and a good deal of information appears in the artists section of the Dictionary which is not repeated here. Some of those listed also appear in the collectors section. Reference should be made to the articles where cited.
Rudolph ACKERMANN (1764-1834), printseller, publisher and manufacturer of watercolours. His trade cards from c.1800 include "the best
Vellum for Crayon Drawings", "Silk Drawing Papers, for Crayons" as well as "Swiss Crayons and Crayon Pencils."
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk
John ADAIR ( –1771), framemaker, 47 Brewer Street, London; continued by his son William Robert Adair (1747–1807).
The latter must be responsible for the frame for a pastel by Lawrence, 1794.
Lit.: Gilbert 1996, p. 62
Le sieur ADAM (ﬂ. Rouen 1787), "Peintre, Doreur & Marchand d'estampes sur le port, vis-à-vis le pont", advertised in the Journal de Rouen, 19.ix.1787, p. 6, various prints, frames etc., adding "Il met les estampes, dessins & pastels sous verre, nétoie & détache celles qui auroient souffert par l'humidité."
Louis-Émile ADAN (1839-1937), painter and illustrator, made pastel copies of eighteenth-century pictures by Perronneau and Lépicié.
Mlle ALEXANDRE (ﬂ. Paris 1779) offered a secret method of fixing pastels.
Francesco ALGAROTTI (1712–1764), patron and author.
Antoine-Julien ALIZARD (1827–1912), born in Buironfosse, Aisne, professor of drawing and painting at Langres, was a pupil of Léon Cogniet; he exhibited pastels at the salon de 1850. He made a copy of La Tour's Rousseau, probably after the version in Saint-Quentin, for which the Ministère de l'Intérieur paid 300 francs in 1850.
John ALLEN (c.1745–1829), leading bookseller in Hereford, offered artists' materials including soft crayons in sets, "as cheap as in London", in an
advertisement in the Hereford journal, 15.xii.1785. He was the father of John Allen (1789–1831), bookseller and antiquary,
author of the history of Herefordshire.
Lit.: Oxford DNB, for son
William ALLEN (ﬂ. 1779–1826), map and print-seller, 88 Dame Street, Dublin, advertised artists' materials, including crayons, Dublin evening post, 20.xii.1781.
ALLWOOD & MURRAY (ﬂ. 1774), framemakers, who had the pastellist Peter Romney imprisoned for debt in 1774. The letter to his brother of 10.vi.1774 suggests that this was a firm active in either Ipswich or Cambridge, but it may be that Allwood and Murray were independent creditors. Thomas Allwood (c.1738-p.1799) was a well-known London framer.
Charles-Claude de Flahaut de La Billarderie, comte d'ANGIVILLER (1730-1810), directeur général des Bâtiments du Roi from 1774.
"De Heer ANGRAND" advertised in the Middelburgsche courant, 27.vii.1773, that "hy verkoopt ook allerley Zoort van Couleuren van Verf, Pastel, en Crayons met een Collectie van Porcelein Lak..."
An ANONYMOUS advertisement in the Annonces, affiches, nouvelles et avis divers de l'Orléanois of 7.xi.1766, under the heading Physique expérimentale, offered numerous scientific demonstrations with electricity etc. The machines were for sale after the demonstration, as were an assortment of all sorts of artificial flowers. Finally, "le Démonstrateur fixe les Portraits en pastel, nettoie les Tableaux en huile, & en enleve la peinture pour la transporter sur une toile neuve." The unidentified demonstrator may perhaps have been M. Leprince (q.v.).
Nicolas ANSEAUME, Antheaume etc. (1730–1786), maker of mannequins.
Emile-Jean ARMEL-BEAUFILS (1882-1952), sculptor from Rennes, copyist of a La Tour préparation.
Giovanni Battista ARMENINI (c.1525-1609), author of De' veri precetti della pittura, Ravenna, 1587, in which composition of drawing sticks is discussed.
Lit.: Kosek 1998, p. 2, n.15; Grove art online
Giovanni Maria ASTORI (ﬂ. 1786), socio onorario dell' Accademia Veneta di pittura, published Della pittura colle cera all'encausto in 1786, containing a formula for encaustic painting. According to the review in L'Esprit des journaux, .ix.1786, p. 152, his "eau de cire" could also be used to fix pastel.
Lucien AUBERT (1893–1979), restaurateur de dessins et d'estampes à Paris.
Lit.: Volle & al. 2020
Étienne AVRIL (1748–1791), Paris framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 23.xi.1774; brother of Pierre and Jean-Denis Avril.
Lit.: Vial 1912–22; Harden 1998
Alexis AXILETTE (1860-1931), French painter, grand prix de Rome 1885; copyist of La Tour pastel.
Jean-Jacques BACHELIER (1724-1806), artist and experimenter in pastel techniques.
Louis-Guillaume BAILLET, baron de SAINT-JULIEN (1726-1795), salon critic.
Robert BAKER (ﬂ. London 1770–79), author of books on the English language and the art exhibitions of 1771.
Filippo BALDINUCCI (1625-1697), collector, art historian and author; mixed pigments with gum and candied sugar, and described a porte-crayon.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135; Burns 2007, p. 25
Marguerite BARDIN (Côte d'Or 1738 – Orléans 1812), sister of the history painter Jean Bardin and aunt of the pastellist Ambroise-Marguerite Bardin (q.v.), is most likely the supplier who advertised from her brother's school: "Mlle Bardin sœur annonce que l'on trouvera chez elle, à l'école de dessin, rue des grands Ciseaux, toutes les choses nécessaires aux arts du dessin, de la peinture, architecture & sculpture comme…boîtes de pastel,…toiles pour peindre à l'huile & au pastel…" (Journal de Loiret, 23.xi.1791, pp. 1073f)
Bertrand BARERE DE VIEUZAC (1755–1841), politician, journalist and salon critic.
Mme Isola BARISONI (ﬂ. 1916), 31 rue Fessart, Boulogne-sur-Seine, made numerous pastel pastiches in the XVIIIe style.
Robert BARKER (1739–1806), an itinerant painter, was awarded a patent (no. 1612) on 19.vi.1787 for panoramic apparatus called La nature à coup-d'œil, "for displaying views of nature at large, by oil-painting, fresco, water-colours, crayons or other mode of painting or drawing."
John BARROW (1713–c.1780), mathematics tutor to the Royal Navy, writer and lexicographer. He is likely to be the John
Barrow of Sedbergh, born 1713 in Stainton, Westmoreland; he married Isabel Hodgson in Dent, 27.xii.1746; their son William matriculated at Oxford in 1774. At some
stage in the 1760 John Barrow became director of the Soho Academy run by Dr Barwis. He was succeeded by his son c.1780.
His Dictionarium polygraphicum (1735) contains a lengthy article on the manufacture of crayons, citing the
methods of "Mr Brown", presumably Alexander Browne, as well as of "Valyant" (Vaillant) (qq.v.). A large part of the text is exactly the same as that of the
third chapter in the anonymous Method of learning to draw in perspective, made easy published by Peele around the same time, and crediting Robert Boyle (q.v.).
Lit.: Oxford DNB; Nicholas Hans, New trends in education in the eighteenth century, London, 1951, pp. 90f; Dent parish records; Treatises
Le sieur J. BARTHELEMY, Libraire du Gouvernement & de l'Intendance, au Port-au-Prince, in Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 21.ii.1788 (p. 88), offered "pastels encadrés". In .xii.1790 he offered boxes of colours newly received from Paris, including of "Pastel fin".
Pierre-François BASAN (1723–1797), Paris.
Sieur BASIN (ﬂ. 1737), marchand de couleurs, Paris, mentioned as a creditor in the inv. p.m. of the pastellist Pierre Duval (q.v.).
Germain BAZIN (1901–1990), conservateur au Louvre 1951–65.
René BEAUBOEUF (1795–1866), doreur, rue Saint-Honoré, Paris: supplied frames and artists materials, including to 19th century copies of La Tour etc.
Christophe-Jean-François BEAUCOUSIN (1723-1798), avocat au parlement, jurisconsulte et biographe, critic of the Salon de 1769.
Pierre-François BEAUMONT (Paris a.1706 - Pantin 1793), sculpteur et doreur in Paris, framed Perronneau's portraits of the prince d'Ardore. He
also worked for Nattier, Portail and the Bâtiments du roi (a superb frame for Carle Van Loo's portrait of Louis XV was sent to the cardinal de La Roche-Aymon in 1757).
His career started as an engraver, maître sculpteur juré, rue Meslay 1747, subsequently pont Notre-Dame. In 1731 he married a Jeanne Bauchin, when he was
described as a graveur en taille douce and had already achieved majority.
On 13.iv.1736 he was awarded a brevet de Graveur en taille-douce de la ville de Paris. By 1740 he was described as maître peintre, et conseiller (directeur by 1748)
de l'Académie de Saint-Luc. In 1748 the maître peintre took on an apprentice, Madeleine Monsure, "désireuse d'apprendre la dorure sur bois". His wife, died 17.v.1777 at
Belleville. He died on 1.vii.1793 in Pantin, Saine-Saint-Denis; among the heirs listed was a daughter, Marie-Antoinette, who married first Claude-Charles Bucarin, négociant, then Jacques-Pierre Julliac, entrepreneur des Bâtiments du roi.
Lit.: Arnoult 2007; Pons 1987; X. Salmon, Portail, 1996, p. 11; Mémoires de la Société de sphragistique de Paris, iii, 1853, p. 155
Les demoiselles BEAUVAIS, rue Neuve de Richelieu, près la place de Sorbonne, "préviennent le public qu'elles ont trouvé un secret pour fixer le pastel sans altérer la beauté et la
vivacité des couleurs." They were probably the Mlles Beauvais, marchands d'estampes, rue Saint-Jacques, presumably daughters of the engraver
Nicolas Dauphin de Beauvais (1687-1763) and sisters of the engravers Charles-Nicolas (1730–1795) and Jacques-Philippe (1736–1781), prix de Rome, 1767. In the inv. p.m. of the engraver
Charles Dupuis, 12.iv.1742, Catherine Duchange, the wife of Nicolas Dauphin Beauvais, owed 79 livres for prints purchased.
Lit.: Avant-Coureur, cited Goncourt & Goncourt 1867; Bénézit; Roze de Chantoiseau 1769
Thomas BECKWITH (1731-1786), artist, inventor of crayon pencils.
Louis-Abel BEFFROY DE REIGNY, dit le Cousin Jacques (1757–1811), writer and salon critic.
François-Eugène-Robert Noyel, comte de BELLEGARDE, marquis des Marches (1720–1790), from Savoy, soldier, natural history collector, freemason, associated with
Belle de Zuylen before her marriage. A letter to Caroline Luise von Baden of 1769, sent in confidence, describes essentially Lalande's recipe.
Lit.: Reuter 2015, pp. 120f
Michel BELOT (1730–1792), 3, rue de l'Arbre-sec, Paris, painter, dealer, marchand de couleurs, fabricant de vernis, mentioned by Chaperon
1788, p. 161 and the Almanach du commerce for 1803–25. In 1758 he married Louise-Élisabeth Prieur. Their daughter, also Louise-Élisabeth (1761–1803),
became the second wife of the painter Martin Drölling in 1785; Drölling's fine oil portrait of his father-in-law is
at Orléans. Mme Belot was still supplying artists' materials, including canvases, from this address until her death in 1803. Drölling's death was registered in 1817 by her
brothers Michel (1762– ) and Louis-Dominique (1783– ), both described as marchands de couleurs.
Lit.: Jal 1872, pp. 507f; inv. p.m., AN MC XXIV/1035, 4.i.1793; Herluison 1873, p. 118f
Claude BERNIER [erroneously Bernière], sgr de Saint-Martin (c.1720–1784), avocat au parlement, contrôleur général des ponts et
chaussées 1750, de l'Académie des sciences, des Académies de Caen, Metz, Angers et Rouen, château du
Boële à Glos-la-Ferrière. On 25.ix.1753 he married Marie-Charlotte Klingstet ( –1757); she had previously been married to Louis-François Lemarchand de La Vieuville,
whom Bernières had succeeded as contrôleur général des ponts et chaussées, leaving at least six children. On 17.xii.1744 Bernières was imprisoned in the Bastille for attempting to steal papers from Saint-Gobain, but released six weeks
later when the papers were returned. In 1774 at Saint-Gobain he constructed an alcohol-filled glass lens of enormous dimensions; the apparatus was depicted in
a contemporary print. He died in the Louvre in 1784. He wrote to La Tour on 12.v.1764, with a version published in the Mercure, .vi.1764 (pp. 158ff), describing
the various problems with finding suitable glass for pastels. That made with Spanish soda was dark and greenish, while flint glass was weak, unless supplied in thick
sheets; Bohemian glass from Saint-Quirin was excellent apart from its annoying undulations, which he proposed either to straighten with his machine or to supply with a
deliberate, regular bulge. He was assisted by M. Charrier (q.v.).
Lit.: AN Y5327, Registre de clôtures d'inventaires après déces, 30.x.1757; AN Y4905A, registres de tutelles, sucession Bernier, 1767; AN Y5138A, notoriété, 10.ii.1786; AN inv. V/13, table des scellés
Jean-Elie BERTRAND (1737-1779), in his Descriptions des arts et métiers, 1775, III, p. 355–56, paragraph 61, offers a discussion of the relative merits of vellum or paper for pastel, noting that Rosalba and La Tour always used paper, while Boucher and Liotard prefer vellum.
Adolphe BEUGNIET (1820–1893), dealer, opened shop at 10 rue Laffitte in 1848, where he showed works by Delacroix and, in the 1880s, Degas:
label on pastels by Perronneau, La Tour and anon., marquis de Brunoy.
Lit.: Volle & al. 2020
Guillaume BIROCHON (ﬂ. The Hague 1696-1726), pastellist and picture restorer.
Roby BISHOP (1738–1792), stationer, of Great Newport Street, Long Acre "has made it his business to provide
himself with paper made on purpose for Crayon-Painting, drawing, &c. where the Student may be supplied with the best sort of paper for
his purpose." He was succeeded by his son (by his wife, née Elizabeth Pearce) Samuel (who went bankrupt in 1793 and 1802).
Lit.: Russell 1777, p. 21n.; Exeter working papers at bookhistory.blogspot.co.uk; F. T. Cansick, Collection of...epitaphs, 1869
George BLACKMAN, son-in-law and assistant to Mr Reeves, at the Blue Coat Boy, 362 Oxford Street, advertised artists' materials including boxes of superfine Swiss Crayons: Morning chronicle, 8.ix.1800.
Louis-Marie BLANQUART DE SEPTFONTAINES (1751–1830), "un gentilhomme de l'Ardrésis"; he was born in Calais and appointed échevin in
1783. A friend of Buffon, he contributed an article on "L'Art de composer les pastels" to volume VI of Panckcoucke's Encyclopédie méthodique
which appeared in 1789, and is considerably more extensive than the article in Diderot & d'Alembert's version.
Thomas-Vincent BLIGNY (Paris 1720–1783), maître peintre, lancier de la Grande Écurie du roy, demeurant grande rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine
(according to a contrat de mariage of his ward, Mlle Beauquesne in 1773), "peintre-doreur, cour du Manège, aux Tuileries…tient Magasin…de jolies Têtes de
Femmes en Pastels & Mignatures" according to his trade card. These were destroyed in a fire of 1762. He had reopened by 1765, selling "toutes
sortes de portraits en pastel et des Estampes, dans lesquels il y a des nudités, mais ce sont des morceaux d'histoire" according to the police report.
Lit.: lettre d'Hemery, inspecteur de police, 1765, BnF, MS franc. 22121, Anisson, 2, cited Louis Dunand, "Les estampes dites decouvertes et couvertes," Gazette des beaux-arts, LXIX, 1967, p. 237; Dacier, Vuaflard & Hérold 1922; Michel 2007, p. 123f
John James BONHOTE (ﬂ. 1763-80), The Star, Hayes's Court, Soho, London 1766-80, haberdasher and supplier of pastels by
Stoupan (q.v.). The business took over that of Lewis Pache & Co from the same address, 1765-67. A trade card issued in 1766 reads:
"Jn. James Bonhote, (successor to Mr. Pache) hosier, hatter and glover, at the Star in Hays's Court, the lower end of Greek Street, Soho, London;
sells all sorts of silk, cotton, thread and worsted hose, ... The genuine Arquebuzade water from Switzerland, ... Sells besides, the noted
pastels, or Swiss crayons, by Bernard Stoupan, recommended for the best in Europe." John Russell (1772) describes Bonhote as
the original importer of crayons ("the ingredients which compose these brilliant crayons are not to be met with in England"), but by 1773 they
were being made by Charles Pache (q.v.) in London. He seems to have married twice; to Susanna N, and in 1769 to Alexandrine Etiennette
Lit.: Kosek 1998; Simon 1998; British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Thomas BONVOISIN (Paris 1723–1777), peintre de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, reçu 1750. "Le sieur Bonvoisin fait aussi des
pastels à la manière de Stouppan [Stoupan, q.v.] de Lausanne, dont il a le secret. Il en fournit à tous nos grands peintres. On
sçait que Stouppan est l'artiste qui réussissoit le mieux à fabriquer es beaux crayons de pastel des plus beaux tons dans toutes le dégradations.
Le sieur Bonvoisin, peintre-doreur et marchand de tableaux, demeure place du vieux Louvre, à côté du sieur Coquerel, pâtissier
(L'Avant-Coureur, 2.viii.1762, p. 491). On 14.vii.1750 at Saint-Roch he married Catherine-Michelle Bapst, a second cousin.
In 1764 his shop was broken into, and among the pictures stolen was a pastel Tête de femme, artist
unspecified. In an unusual case, where he was described as "maître peintre rue de Grenelle Saint-Honoré", a religious painting by one Calais
was sent to him for packing, but the owner noticed that Bonvoisin had made two unauthorised copies; Bonvoisin said they were made by his son,
a pupil of Calais. By 1777 he was described as an "ancien marchand de tableaux" in a list of creditors, and as a maître doreur in his inv. p.m., the same year.
Lit.: Guiffrey 1915; Chatelus, "Quelques aspects des rapports conflictuels...", La Condition sociale de l'artiste..., 1987; Chatelus 1991, pp. 42, 70; Michel 2008, pp. 123, 190; Dispenses de mariage, ZN Z1o/176, 2.vii.1750; registre de clôture d'inventaires, AN Y5320
Jacqueline BOUCHOT-SAUPIQUE (1893–1973), conservatrice en chef au cabinet des dessins du Louvre.
Raphaël BOUQUET (Audigny 1863 - p.1928) received a Mention Très Honorable in Tours in 1894, and subsequently established studios
at 63, rue d'Isle, Saint-Quentin and 36, rue André Godin, Guise specialising in "photographie artistique, peinture, dessin, pastel". From 1894 until 1900 he was
married to Zoé-Ernestine Lesage. In 1920 his
address was 45 bd Gambetta, Saint-Quentin. He is not recorded after 1928. He is known for a series of competent pastel copies of the La Tour works at Saint-Quentin, but
incurred much hostility when he collaborated with the Germans in the production of the French edition of Erhard 1918.
Lit.: Lapauze 1917; Saint-Quentin 2007; "L'art à Saint-Quentin", Le Grand Echo de l'Aisne, 1.v.1926, p. 1
Étienne-Pierre BOURSIER (Paris –1783): "Le sieur Boursin, Marchand de Couleurs, rue du Roule, à l'Aigle de Prusse, donne avis au Public,
qu'après bien des recherches et des
expériences faites, il a enfin trouvé le secret de faire toutes sortes de Pastels, qu'il a portés à une perfection où ils n'étoient point encore
parvenus. Il les compose & les roule de telle façon, quoiqu'on les garde long-tems. Chaque boëte complette & bien assortie contient cent trente
Pastels, qui forment autant de nuances differentes."
He was evidently Étienne-Pierre Boursier, marchand de dorures at that address (recorded there from 1740 until his will, made 1783); his sons (from his 1746 marriage to
Marie-Anne Lenglet) Antoine-Claude and Alexandre Boursier, marchands merciers,
continued the business selling broderies d'or et d'argent. He was also commissaire des pauvres and marguillier de la paroisse de Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois.
Lit.: Mercure de France, .vi.1750, p. 208; part cited Chatelus 1991, p. 70; Mercure de France, .xii.1750, p. 210, slightly reworded, with the supplier's name corrected to Boursier.
Louis BOUSSARD ( -1788), menuisier-ébéniste, reçu maître 9.vii.1762, rue Cassette.
Lit.: Vial 1912–22
Claude BOUTET [possibly a pseudonym for Christophe Ballard (1641-1715)], author credited with the early Traité de la peinture en
mignature of which numerous versions appeared from 1673 on. The 1708 edition, printed in The Hague by the firm of Van Dole, contains
an important supplement, indicated on the title page as Auquel on a ajouté un petit traité de la peinture au pastel, avec la méthode de
composer les pastels. The author remains anonymous, but suggestions have included Jakob Christoph Le Blon (1667–1741), a specialist in colour
prints; Adam van Broekhuizen (1682–1748) and Constantijn Huygens II (1628–1697), both known pastellists (qq.v.). The few illustrations
were engraved by David Coster ( –1752). It provides very detailed instructions on making up pastels and combining colours. It also has practical
comments reflecting the practices of the
day, including the suggestion that room be made in the compartments of the pastel box for a few powdered pigments to be applied with stump, and
that the paper on which pastels are to be drawn are pasted to a board. The author recommends making pastel portraits half natural size, to make
up for the lack of force compared with oil painting, compensating by making the object seem more distant and thus fainter.
Lit.: Kuehni 2010; Treatises
Antoine BOUTON (ﬂ. Paris ?c.1690–1770), papetier, cartier de la chambre du roi, Aux armes de France et de Navarre, rue Neuve des Petits-Champs,
au coin de la rue Neuve des Bons Enfans: paper supplier, succeeded by his son-in-law Latizeau c.1770. His wife was Françoise Sion; their son was Aubin Bouton (1738–1802),
while their daughter Françoise (1726–1795), rue Meslay, married Pierre Latizeau ( –a.1795), marchand mercier à Paris; they appear to have sold the paper business to Pierre's brother
Nicolas Latizeau, marchand papetier à Versailles. The Bouton trade card may be later than c.1690, or may have been issued by Antoine's father, André, bourgeois de Paris.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913, pp. 202f, 258; Burns 2007, p. 48
Robert BOYLE (1627–1691), scientist. In 1731, John Peele at Locke's Head published, for 1s., The art of drawing and painting in
water-colours; the 2nd and 3rd editions appeared in 1732, and a 4th in 1735. Chapter XIV offered "Curious Directions for Drawing with Crayons"
(the curiosity for us may be that the instructions were focused on landscape rather than portrait painting),
while the next chapter was on the "Use and Nature of Dry Crayons". The treatise was otherwise focused on watercolour, but included a number of recipes
for preparing colour said to have come from Boyle's unpublished papers which the author had been shown by Boyle's great-nephew, the late Lord
Carleton. In 1732 Peele published the Method of learning to draw in perspective, made easy and fully explained, which included
"the art of drawing in crayons, with receipts for making them after the French and Italian manner" &c., "chiefly from
the manuscripts of the great Mr Boyle". Dedicated to Lady Walpole (an amateur artist; presumably Sir
Robert's wife), this reached its 3rd edition by 1735. What was described as
the 5th edition was published by Isaac Jackson in Dublin in 1749 under the title Arts companion, or A new assistant for the ingenious. This
included chapter III from the Method, while chapter IV was chapter XIV from the Art.
It is unclear whether Boyle had any involvement in the sections on pastels; he is credited explicitly only with newly invented blue and crimson
pigments. A large part of the text (the entire third chapter) coincides
precisely with much of the entry in Barrow's Dictionarium polygraphicum, 1735.
Joseph BOZE (l745-1826) developed his own method of fixing pastels.
Charles-Paul-Jérôme de BRÉA (1739-1820), inventor of fixing method.
BRESSON DE MAILLARD, v. Dictionary, artists, s.n. Mme Bresson
Elisabeth BRETSCHNEIDER, née Freiin von Bodenhausen (?1872–p.1927), copyist in Dresden: a 1927 copy of La Tour's Maurice de Saxe.
"Le jeune BRIATTE" (ﬂ. 1877) requested permission to copy the La Tour pastels at the École gratuite de dessin de Saint-Quentin (registre des délibérations, 30.viii.1877).
L'abbé Philippe BRIDARD DE LA GARDE (?1710-1767), salon critic, bibliothécaire de Mme de Pompadour, friend of abbé Mangenot and of Crébillon.
D'Hémery's police report (14.viii.1749).
Gaston BRIÈRE (1871–1962).
Constant-Joseph BROCHART (1816–1899), born in Lille, the son of a Spanish painter. He exhibited at the Paris salon from 1845. In the archives of Goupil & Cie, in addition to numerous records of his own work, there is a reference to a pastel by Rosalba from the Galerie du Palais Royal "retouché par Brochart".
Herr BROCK (ﬂ. Kassel a.1800), Maler in Kassel, inventor of a fixing method.
Adam van BROECKHUYSEN (?1682-1748), founded a crayon-making business.
Henry BROOKES ( –1795), carver and gilder, better known for the Portfolio Manufactory and Stationery Warehouse at the Golden Head, 8 Coventry Street 1784–91, where he supplied of Reeve's colours etc. He also published the Courier de Londres. He is mentioned in Saint-Michel's advertisement in 1785, and sold Jones's delineator in 1784/85. The business was continued by his nephew, also Henry Brookes.
Henri BRUNEL, framemaker, ébéniste, Paris, reçu maître 9.vii.1763, syndic 1789, rue de Sève. His wife, Josèphe Mondémontenct, died in 1789. He appears in
the list of payees in the Loi no. 1035 of 16.vi.1791 covering arrears of royal payments.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998
Tønnes Christian BRUUN DE NEERGAARD (1776-1824), v. Collectors
John BRYDON (ﬂ. 1783–1806), opposite Parliament Street, Charing Cross: printseller and framemaker who advertised engravings of pastels by De Koster 1793–97.
Albert-Quentin-Marie-Catherine, chevalier Philippy de BUCELLY D'ESTRÉES (1777–1850), membre résident de la Société des sciences, arts, belles-lettres et agriculture de la ville de Saint-Quentin, and author of an early biography of La Tour which appeared in the Mémoires of the society. He was the second son of Albert Philippy de Bucelly d'Estrées (1745-1809), lieutenant des maréchaux de France, mousquetaire du roi, and administrator of the Ecole de dessin at Saint-Quentin.
J. J. BÜCHEL (ﬂ. 1853), 15 rue de Dôme, Strasbourg, print publisher, "magasin de glaces des manufactures de St Gobain et de Grey…fabrique de cadres dorés et de fantaisie…", label found on a 1783 pastel by Durand.
Adam BUCK (1759-1833), developed a method of mixing pastels with wax.
Bainbrigg, or Baynbrigg, BUCKERIDGE, or Buckridge (1668-1733), poet, painter and author of an early history of British
painters (appended to Savage's translation of de Piles, 1706), attributes the "Perfection of Crayon-Painting" to Britain (and specifically
to Ashfield's extended palette); following a section of de Piles which is omitted from the translation, he defines "Pastils" as the "name formerly given…Crayons".
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 7; Oxford DNB; Treatises
Denis-Charles BULDET (Paris 1724–1794), marchand privilégié du roi, sculpteur, editeur d'estampes, rue de Gesvres. "Buldet, maître peintre" appears in the account book of Jean-Nicolas Vernezobre who owed him 59 livres for supplying "verre blanc". His vente p.m., 4.xii.1797, was organised by Regnault.
Adrian BURY (1891-1991), artist, poet and author of a study on La Tour. His pastel copy of the famous préparation of Marie Fel appeared at auction in 2013.
François-Charles BUTEUX (1722-1802), sculpteur ordinaire de la chambre du comte d'Artois, rue du Saint-Sépulchre 688, supplied numerous frames for the
Bâtiments du roi (including frames for important paintings by Vigée Le Brun, as well as the Roslin pastel of Louis le dauphin, J.629.158, 1775), and appears in
the list of payees in the Loi no. 1035 of 16.vi.1791 covering arrears of royal payments for the Bâtiments du roi; he was due 44,349 livres,
one of the largest sums in the list. He was probably the son of Jean-Charles Buteux, reçu sculpteur, Académie de Saint-Luc, 1724. François-Charles's biodetails are incorrect
in many reference works: a carte de sureté was issued on 6.x.1792 when he was 70; his death was registered 13 pluviôse an X (his heir was Nicolas
Lestertin, sculpteur). His wife, Marie-Françoise Cointenant, died in 1787. In a document of 11.x.1758, AN Y5277 concerning the Cointenant family, Buteux is described as "premier medailliste de
l'academie royale de peinture & sculpture"; the Procès-verbaux confirm that he obtained 2nd prix de quartier in sculpture in 1747 and 1st in 1750.
Lit.: Pons 1987
Daniel CAFFÉ (1756–1815) instructed his brother Gottfried in the manufacture of pastels, "as good as those from Lausanne". They
came in complete sets of more than 300 pieces, among them a particularly fine, stable green. They were available at a particularly low
price in Dresden, "vor dem Pirnaischen Thore, No. 333".
André-Charles CAILLEAU (1731–1798), printer, bookseller and salon critic.
Cornelius CALLAGHAN, carver, gilder and looking-glass manufacturer recorded between 1822 and 1845 at 24 Clare Street, Dublin. Label on pastels by Hamilton,
pendants at Chaalis: "Cornelius Callaghan / Carver and Gilder / Looking glass and picture Frame / Manufacture / Dublin". He was no doubt the Cornelius Callaghan baptised
at St Mary's (Church of Ireland), Dublin, 17.IV.1784, son of Cornelius Callaghan,
the glazier, painter, map and print-seller recorded between 1770 and 1815 in Britain Street and Mary Street. An advertisement in Saunder's News-letter for 6.iii.1782
announced an exhibition of pictures just purchased in London, including watercolours by Sandby, prints by Bartolozzi etc., as well as artists' materials, including crayons.
Callaghan Jr was succeeded by Nicholas Lombard, 2 Leinster Street, by 1850.
Lit.: Knight of Glin, "Dublin directories and trade labels", Furniture history, 1985, pp. 263
Bernardino CAMPI (1522–1591), Italian painter active in Cremona, who, according to Lomazzo, wrote a treatise about pastel.
Abondio CAMPIONE (ﬂ. 1772–96), Italian, at the Golden-Head, near All Saints Church, in Oxford, advertised in the Oxford journal, 23.v.1772, various wares and artist's materials, including crayons. He was recorded as a printseller and publisher in 1778.
Anatole CAMUS (ﬂ. c.1888–1917), gardien-concierge au musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin. Legend has it that he replaced La Tour's pastels with copies he made himself
to deceive the Germans during the First World War.
Lit.: Lapauze 1917; Saint-Quentin 2007
Pierre CAPELLE (1770-1851), auteur, salon critic.
CARDEREAU, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris.
Lit.: Harden 1998
Rosalba CARRIERA (1673-1757), pastellist credited with early progress in the method.
Raymond-(Alphonse) CASEZ (Saint-Quentin 1892–1977), a pupil of Croisé and Degrave at his native Saint-Quentin, won premier prix at the École de dessin there. He
made copies after the pastels in the musée Antoine-Lécuyer in sufficient numbers to have had a label printed: "COPIE/d'après M.-Q. DE LA TOUR/(Musée de Saint-Quentin)/Exécuté par Raymond
CASEZ/ancien élève de l'École de la Tour/51, Rue de Fayet – Saint-Quentin". An article in 1947 notes that he exhibited in a shop window in Saint-Quentin ten copies of La Tour pastels
from the musée Antoine-Lécuyer, as well as the Perronneau La Tour and the La Tour autoportrait in Amiens; he is listed with M. Dantan as the worthy continuers of Degrave, Maurice Pointet and Delvigne.
Lit.: Revue du vrai et du beau, 10.iii.1930; L'Aisne nouvelle, 15.v.1947
Claude-Philippe CAYEUX (1688–1769), v. Collectors.
Mme CAZE, née Robert
Mlle CELLIER, supplier of pastels for the procedure invented by Pellechet (q.v.).
Benvenuto CELLINI (1500-1571), artist; writing c.1560, he describes the use of pastelli which may or may not refer to fabricated sticks, and could be an
Lit.: McGrath 1998; Burns 2007, p. 4
Cennino CENNINI (c.1370-c.1440), painter and author of early treatise on artists' materials, Il libro dell'arte, which first noted the mixing of pigments with white fillers to create graded colours, for use in tempera painting
Marie-Louise Guibert, Mme Charles CHAISE (1735–1802), from the 1760s, ran a boutique at the corner of the rue de l'Echelle and the petite
rue Saint-Louis, displaying a number of licentious pictures including five pastels probably by her husband.
Dictionary, artists; collectors, s.v. Charles Chaise
William CHALMERS & Son, framers, 118 High Street, Edinburgh. Framers of a number of pastels by Skirving (q.v.)
Sir William CHAMBERS (1723–1796), architect, of Berners Street, the subject of a pastel by Cotes. He received a letter from Margaret Hay, Aberdeen, ordering some "crions" for her eldest, Betty, who is learning to draw tolerably well (30.i.1769, Royal Academy of Arts Archive, CHA/1/14).
Jules-François-Felix Fleury-Husson, dit CHAMPFLEURY (1821–1889), writer and art critic known for his support of the Realist movement. His monograph on La Tour was prompted by the artist's association with Champfleury's native town of Laon.
James Wells CHAMPNEY (1843-1903), painter, studied in Écouen, Antwerp and Rome between 1866 and 1870 before returning to his native Boston. He subsequently returned to Europe for shorter trips: an inscription on the verso of a copy after Boucher suggests that he was in Paris, 19 quai Voltaire in 1893. He made numerous pastel copies after old master paintings and pastels, including works by La Tour, Perronneau, Vigée Le Brun, Rembrandt, Boucher, Nattier, Greuze, Rigaud, Mignard, Drouais and Raoux, some copied after pictures in the Louvre (a photograph of his studio, reproduced in Bunce 1897, reveals his competent copies of famous Louvre pastels by Prud'hon, Rosalba, Russell and Chardin). In an exhibition held at Knoedler & Co, New York, 24.xi.-22.xii.1894, he exhibited 47 of these pastel copies, many after pastels. Some 210 pastels, many copies, were in his posthumous sale (New York, American Art Galleries, 21-22.i.1904, with a biographical note). He also collected 18th century pastels, among them a Russell study for John Jefferys which he bought from Sir Edwin Landseer. In 1875 he married Elizabeth Williams (1850–1922), a poet and novelist; she published an article on "The golden age of pastel" in the Century magazine, 1891.
Paul-Romain CHAPERON (1732-1793), author of an influential treatise on pastel.
Jean CHARMETON (Lyon 1701 – p.1750), peintre des bâtiments du roi, a member of the extended family of painters and sculptors from
Lyon (of whom the best known was his great-uncle, Georges Charmeton, de l'Académie royale); his father was André Charmeton (1670–1722), peintre et doreur in Lyon.
He was married in Paris, Saint-Sulpice, in 1742 to a Marie-Anne Beauchet or Bauchet (he is there described as "dessignateur et peintre"). He invented a method of fixing pastel, which he offered to sell
to La Tour and then to anyone offering a reasonable sum. Subsequently there appeared in Le Mercure (.ii.1746, p. 141) an advertisement for pastels:
"Les amateurs & curieux du beau Pastel sont avertis qu'il se fait depuis quelque tems à Paris d'excellens crayons dont le célébre M. de la Tour
& autres fameux Peintres en ce genre font actuellement usage par préference à tous autres. Ces crayons, quoique très-tendres, doux & gras, tiennent la pointe
comme ceux de sanguine & s'effacer très-difficilement. Ils se vendent chés la Demoiselle Charmeton au Fauxbourg
Saint-Germain rue S. Benoît vis-à-vis l'Abbaye, au premier appartement dans le fond de la Cour: on y en trouvera toujours des assortimens ou demi-assortimens
tout prêts." (A similar
piece appeared in Les Affiches, 24.xi.1746.) This claim was supported by the appearance (as Lot 502) in Charles Coypel's posthumous
sale of "Sept Tiroirs remplis de Pastels de meilleurs Fabriques; telles que celles de Moule, Charmeton & autres."
Mlle Charmeton (who may have been Jean's sister) later appeared in Le Courier de la mode, 1770, p. 4, copied e.g. in the Realzeitung der Wissenschaften und Künste, 1771,
advertising her rouge make-up made from wild safflower.
Lit.: Lieudé de Sepmanville 1747 (Dictionary, salon critique); Goncourt & Goncourt 1867; Jal 1872; Chatelus 1991, p. 70; AN Y4691A Registres de tutelles, 17.i.1750.
Benjamin CHARPENTIER (c.1747-1818), framemaker, of 430 Oxford Street, 1775, 24 Cumberland Street, 1778, Titchfield Street from 1795: supplied frame and glass
for Russell's Mrs Jeans, 1798, for £12/9/-.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
M. CHARRIER, "méchanicien, au Louvre", advertised in the Nouvelles de la république des lettres et des arts, 1782, p. 248, "un assortiment de crayons à dessiner, de nouvelle composition." He was an assistant of Bernières (q.v.) for some 27 years before 1772, and a painter in his spare time, according to a letter from Pierre to Marigny, 20.iii.1772.
Jacques-Charles-Denis CHARTIER ( –a.1782), framemaker, maître-menuisier, marchand ébéniste-miroitier, reçu 31.v.1760, rue
Saint-Antoine, près de la rue Royale, Paris. On 20.vii.1752 he married Marie-Jeanne Henault in Paris (Saint-Cosme).
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998
Serge CHAUMONT (1938– ) has, since 1982, made copies of the La Tour pastels at Saint-Quentin at the request of the town, to be presented to official visitors. One was sold at auction in Saint-Quentin, 2.vii.2016.
Pierre-Jean-Baptiste CHAUSSARD (1766–1823), writer and salon critic.
Jacques-François CHÉREAU (1742–1794), maître graveur, marchand d'estampes Au deux piliers d'or, rue de la Sorbonne, v. Joubert.
Jean CHÉRIN (1734-1786), maître-sculpteur, reçu de l'Académie de Saint-Luc 1760; maître-menuisier p.1760, framemaker, rue de Charonne, Paris.
Lit.: Guiffrey 1915; Harden 1998; Salverte 1962
Jérôme CHÉRON (c.1670–1742), peintre, marchand de couleurs à Paris.
Julien CHESNEAU (ﬂ. Rouen 1770), marchand mercier, rue aux Juifs, au coin de la petite rue de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, advertised in the Journal de Rouen, 28.ix.1770, p. 1, "Une partie de très beaux Tableaux en pastel, avec des bordures dorées pour les apartemens, de toutes grandeurs & largeurs, le tout à très bon compte."
Jean-François CHEVALIER (ﬂ. 1745-1778), peintre et doreur, who invented a "moulin à broyer les couleurs".
Dictionary, artists, s.v. Jean Chevalier
Jules-Frédéric CHEVREUX (1837–1888), of Saint-Quentin, pupil at the École gratuite de dessin à Saint-Quentin and of Lemasle, named by Fleury (1908)
among the copyists of La Tour. Magnier 1904 mentions a full-size pastel copy of Mme de Pompadour. In 1858 he left Saint-Quentin for Paris in the company of the
painter Ulysse Butin (1837–1883; presumably the
Butain listed as a pupil of Deligne (q.v.) at the École impériale gratuite de dessin à Saint-Quentin in
1865). According to one story, Chevreux damaged a pastel by La Tour but restored it admirably. He exhibited at the Salon of 1861 from a Paris address (rue du
faubourg Saint-Martin). Chevreux remained in obscurity, and died in the lunatic asylum at Prémontré.
Lit.: Jules Claretie, La Vie à Paris, IV, 1883, pp. 482f
Anton Karl CHRAMOSTA (ﬂ. 1867), framemaker in Vienna, Kärntenerstrasse 20; supplied an oval frame for a Borovikovsky pastel.
Charles-Nicolas COCHIN (1715-1790), artist; responsible for assessing inventions proposed to the Académie royale.
Dictionary, artists; Burns 2007
Jean-Jacques COIFFIÉ, framemaker, maître-mensuisier, rue des Carmes, Paris, reçu 23.iii.1751. He was the son of Mathieu Coiffié of
Bruz, near Rennes, and his brother Pierre-Hubert was described as "noble homme" at his marriage in 1750.
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998
René COIFFIER ou Coeffier ( –1810), rue du Coq 133 [= rue du Coq-Honoré 121; by 1810 renumbered to 9: the property was leased from the painter David], marchand papetier et de couleurs fines pour les peintres,
supplier and manufacturer of "crayons noir de velours" used by artists such as J.-A.-M. Lemoine (q.v.). In 1802 he was in partnership with Salmon (q.v.).
The duchesse d'Abrantès called him "le Susse de la papeterie élégante de Paris". He married (after she divorced her first husband, marchand limonadier à la Comédie-Française)
Marie-Antoinette Muret, mother of Joséphine Mézeray (1774–1823) de la Comédie-Française. Despite extensive laboratories and equipment for the production of his special crayons,
when it came to pastels, his stock (which included "quatres boïtes de Pastels de differentes Grandeurs", Fr10; various "étuis à pastels", one holding 50 crayons (Fr4),
one 25 and three a dozen each) was evidently bought in, as he owed "Mme Giraud pour fourniture de pastels" Fr19.75. He also stocked "22 toiles à pastels de toutes
grandeurs" (Fr4). A series of advertisements appeared in the Journal de Paris in 1810 advertise the stock found in the inv. p.m. (including "pastels de
Paris et de Lauzanne"), and reveal that the lease and business had been taken over by Alphonse
Giroux, a picture restorer who had been a pupil of David. He continued the business which remained for many years a fashionable shop in Paris.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913, p. 213; Dictionary, artists, s.v. Lemoine; inv. p.m., 25.i.1810, MC/ET/LII/743; other documents, AN; Jeffares, Citoyen Coiffier, marchand de couleurs et de papiers, 2017
Christian COLE (London 1673-1734), British diplomat and correspondent with Carriera.
An "Arrest du CONSEIL D'ÉTAT du roi, du 15.viii.1752, qui indique les Bureaux pour l'entrée dans le Royaume, des Verres & Ouvrages de Verrerie venant de l'Etranger; & fixe à trente livres du cent pesant les Droits sur les Verres blancs coulés en tables & sans boudines, propres à Estampes & Peintures en pastel, tant à l'éntrée des cinq grosses Fermes, que des Provinces réputés étrangéres…." appeared in the Annonces, affiches et avis divers, 25.ix.1751, p. 598f
Pierre-Barthélemy-Marie-Reine-Joseph-Alexandre de CONSTANT DE MASSOUL (Lyon 1755 – Paris 1813), author of
A treatise on the art of painting, and the composition of colours, 1797.
Dictionary, artists; Treatises; essay
R. COOKE (ﬂ. London, Bath 1787-a.1802), inventor of "hard crayons" and a method of fixing suitable
for black and red chalks.
Edward COOPER (ﬂ. 1682; -1725), at The Three Pigeons, Bedford Street, later Half Moon Street, auctioneer, print seller,
dealer and materials supplier: In an entry in his diary for 8.iv.1696 (18.iv.1696 new style), Constantijn
Huygens (q.v.) purchased some crayons and red chalk from him; he looked at some of his drawings, but did not see any that he liked.
Luttrell was among his debtors listed in his posthumous inventory.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk; National Archives, PROB 3/24/190
Thomas CORNELL ( –1793), print publisher and Stationer to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, at 4 or 7 Bruton street, Berkeley-square, retailer of Swiss crayons by Hudson (q.v.). Walpole mentions his wife [née Ann Smith, dau. of Edward Smith] as the printseller in a letter to Lady Ossory of 25.iv.1783; she died in 1795.
Joseph-Victor CORTEY (1757–1794), épicier, droguiste, aux armes de Condé, rue de Grammont, Paris, supplier of Morvau's zinc white, mentioned by Chaperon 1788, p. 67. During the Revolution Cortey was commandant de la garde nationale, section Lepelletier, and assisted the baron de Batz in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the royal family; he was executed. By 1803 Veuve Cortey [née Marie-Barbe-Élisabeth Barré] was conducting the business from 77 rue des Filles Saint-Thomas.
Francis COTES (1726-1770), pastellist; his "Notes on Crayon Painting" were published in the European magazine
in 1797. John Russell noted that Cotes restored a pastel by Carriera (Calista, belonging to Dr Chauncy) transferring it to another stretcher by soaking it.
Lit.: Dictionary, artists; Russell 1777, p. 22
Pierre-François COZETTE (1714-1801), entrepreneur de tapisserie pour le roi à la manufacture royale des Gobelins: copied pastels by Boucher (Mme Deshays), La Tour (Paris de Monmartel) and Vigée Le Brun (Beaujon, his patron).
Théophile CROCHEZ (Calais 1807 - p.1872), pastellist, pupil of Mouron-Dessin. His copies of early subjects and Bénézit's year of death of 1778 led to his being erroneously considered an eighteenth century artist.
Johann Melchior CROECKER (ﬂ. Jena 1712) published his Wohlanführende Maler, ou le peintre instituteur in 1712
(a revised edition appeared in 1778) which taught amateurs oil, pastel and fresco painting. He was probably related to the engraver and bookseller Heinrich Christoph Croecker (ﬂ. Jena 1706).
Lit.: Paillot de Monabert 1829, I, p. 279; Nagler 1836
Samuel CURWEN (1715–1802), American loyalist, merchant and diarist.
P. DACHON (ﬂ. 1755), painter from Lille, to whom Scheppers (q.v.) vouchsafed his secret for fixing pastel.
Michel-François DANDRE-BARDON (1700–1783), painter and salon critic.
Édouard-Joseph DANTAN (1848-1897), academic painter born in Paris into a family of sculptors. He made a pastel copy of La Tour's abbé Huber.
Lit.: Sophie de Juvigny, Edouard Dantan 1848-1897 : Des ateliers parisiens aux marines normandes, 2002
William DARRES (ﬂ. 1729; –1779), printseller, bookseller and auctioneer at the Three Flower-de-Luces, Haymarket, later Coventry Street, near Haymarket,
a warehouse for Peter De Braque; advertised crayons made by Stoupan: "Just imported, a large Parcel of Pastells or Crayons, in Sets for Ladies, and Painters in Miniature,
by the famous Stoupan… improved by Mr. Loitard [Liotard], the double Box at 2£.12s.6d, and the Single one at 1£.11s.6d to be has no where else" (Public advertiser,
5.i.1756). In the 1730s he formed a partnership for the importation of
books and prints from France with the French engraver Claude du Bosc (1682–1745), who had come to England in 1711.
The firm was declared bankrupt in 1742.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk; Exeter working papers at bookhistory.blogspot.co.uk; Universal director, 1763
Marie-Francois-Joseph DAUDET DE JOSSAN (c.1734–p.1789), galant, salon critic, journalist on the Nouvelle journal helvétique c.1770, alias Lamberguen.
Charles DAVIS (1740-1805), pastellist, and his son, also Charles (1769- ), artists' suppliers in Bath; their advertisements included crayons.
Christine DEBRIE (1950-1999), conservateur of the musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin, from 1978 to 1999.
Les sieurs Gabriel DECOMBAZ & compagnie (ﬂ. 1790), libraire au Cap, in Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 28.iv.1790 (p. 785), offered "boîtes de pastels & autres".
Jules-Alexandre Patrouillard DEGRAVE (1844-1932), a pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme, directeur de l'École gratuite de dessin, Saint-Quentin.
He made numerous pastel copies after La Tour, as well as at least one after Perronneau (Mlle Pinchinat en Diane). Degrave was his mother's name.
Lit.: nécrologie, Saint-Quentin soir, 19.v.1932; Hilary Spurling, "How Matisse became a painter", Burlington magazine, CXXXV/1084, .VII.1993, pp. 463-70; Hilary Spurling, The unknown Matisse, 2005, pp. 50ff; Salmon 2004a
Joseph DEIBEL (1716-1792), a pupil of Kugler (q.v.); wood carvers who supplied the frames for Rosalba's pastels in Dresden.
Lit.: Christoph Schölzel, "Der Dresdener Galerierahmen Geschichte, Technik, Restaurierung", Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, XVI, 2002, pp. 104-29
William DELACOUR (c.1700-1767), supplier of pastels.
Jean-Baptiste-Joseph DELAFOSSE (1721–1806), inventor of a new type of pencil.
Veuve DELARUELLE & Ledanseur (ﬂ. 1837), 20 rue du Petit-Thouars, quartier du Temple, Paris, fabricants et marchands de crayons et pastels. Grand-Carteret 1913 (pp. 221f) erroneously cites an entry as from the Almanach des marchands 1770, but is it in fact from the Almanach du commerce, 1837 (p. 97): "crayons pour dessin et bureau, inventeurs d'un noir extra fin dit noir d'Etna, inventeurs de crayons de couleurs et de nuances à l'infini, pastels, crayons pour dessin...". M. Delaruelle was awarded a silver medal, Athénée des Arts, 1828. In 1820 Marguerite-Alexandrine Delaruelle (the daughter of Anne-Pierrette Duguet and Louis-Jacques Delaruelle, in turn the son of Jacques-Philippe Duguet and Marie-Catherine Potdevin) of 20 Enclos du Temple married Louis-Pierre-Joseph Ledanseur (1798– ), a serrurier, son of Pierre-Augustin Ledanseur and Marie-Nicole-Sophie Ozanne.
Adolphe-Julien DELIGNE (1818–1866), pupil of Delaroche and M.-M. Drolling at the École des beaux-arts, Paris from 1838; exhibited at the Salon 1846–66. He became directeur de l'École impériale gratuite de dessin à Saint-Quentin. In a catalogue des écoles de dessin appeared in conjunction with an exhibition of 1865 at the Palais de l'industrie, Deligne and his pupils are named (Dufour, Clochez, Butain, Queuin (q.v.), Patrouillard [Degrave, q.v.], Lematte, Delalu, Vinmer and Chennevier); the 59 exhibits included "4 copies de portraits au pastel". According to Fleury (1908) he was among the most accomplished copyists of La Tour.
Léon DELVIGNE (1854–1944), dessinateur, conservateur of the musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin, from 1927 to 1939. He made a number of pastel copies of the La Tour pastels there.
Marguerite-Suzanne DENOOR (1751–1830), born in Lunéville; she was described as a marchande d'estampes et de curiosités, Paris. Her first husband was the writer and naturalist François Levaillant (1753–1824), from Suriname. She sold his library and natural history collection to the nation in 1795. After their divorce she married Pierre-Paul Chénier (in 1798). Appearing in inventories as "citoyenne Denor", she was assigned numerous pictures from those seized from émigrés during the Revolution, including one of the two Rosalba pastels of the Gergy/Havrincourt family, the other reserved for the Louvre, where both ended up.
Jean-Auguste Julien, dit DESBOULMIERS (1731–1771), ancien capitaine de cavalerie, littérateur and salon critic.
DES LABBES: Guiffrey's attribution of a 1779 salon critique to this name (MSW 0303) is based on a letter to d'Angiviller with this signature; the writer has not been further identified.
Desmarets, v. Dumarets
Charles DESMAZE (1820-1900), 45 avenue Trudaine, Paris, lawyer and historian; conseiller à la Cour d'appel de Paris, directeur de la Sûreté au ministère de l'Intérieur. Born in
Saint-Quentin, he collected extensive documentation on La Tour which he published in a number of articles
and monographs. In 1891 he presented much of this to the town of Saint-Quentin, followed at his death with a group of pictures including some from the Duliège descendants
of the pastellist: they included an anonymous oil of the artist's brother, together with pastels (presumably by La Tour but now lost) of cardinal Tencin, a sketch for
Mme de Pompadour; and a copy by Charles Escot of a La Tour autoportrait.
Lit.: biographie, La Petite Revue, 21.vii.1872, pp. 130f; Théophile Eck, Journal de Saint-Quentin, 4.i.1901
Louis-Charles DESNOS (1725–1805) was the publisher of numerous atlases and almanachs, as well as of the anonymous Étrennes de Minerve, aux artistes: Encyclopédie economique ou Alexis moderne, Paris, 1772, which contained the Secret pour fixer le Pastel; & tous les Ouvrages au crayon, sans en déranger ni altérer les couleurs – a mixture of fish-glue with alum (sect. 427, III, pp. 28ff), as well as an account of Reifenstein's Nouvelle invention de peindre en pastel, en cire ou à l'encaustique (sect. 512, IV, pp. 14ff).
Mrs DESPORTES & DELERANT (ﬂ. 1790), Ville de Paris, Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 25.XII.1790 (p. 1038), offered "tableaux en pastel" among other luxury goods.
Jean-Baptiste DETROULLEAU (1737-1780), menuisier-ébéniste, reçu maître 5.x.1767; his business continued by his widow, rue du Parc-Royal, 1782–88.
Lit.: Vial 1912–22
Jacques-Georges DEYVERDUN (1734–1789), Swiss author and salon critic.
Denis DIDEROT (1713-1784), philosophe, editor of the Encyclopédie, and art critic.
He encouraged research into encaustic painting in his 1755 treatise
L'Histoire & le secret de la peinture en cire, in which he supported Bachelier's claim to
primacy which he preferred to Caylus's desire for secrecy; but he later dismissed Bachelier's oil pastels in the
Salon de 1765. He acted for Catherine II in acquiring the Crozat collection (q.v.) in 1770.
Lit.: Grove 1996; Hilaire-Pérez 2002
"Van DIEST uit 's Hage" advertised "Pastel Schildereyen &c." in the Groninger courant of 21.ix.1798.
Sophie Friederike DINGLINGER (1736-1791) developed a method of fixing pastels adopted by Stock and others.
Antonio Francesco DONI (1513-1574), painter and author of Disegno, 1549, describing the application of powder onto sheets;
this may not refer to fabricated sticks.
Lit.: McGrath 1998; Burns 2007, p. 4
Johann Gabriel DOPPELMAYR (1677–1750), mathematician and scientist, author of Historische Nachricht von den Nürnbergischen
Mathematikern und Künstlern, Nürnberg, 1730, where he discusses dry pastels.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 138
Robert DOSSIE (1717-1777), apothecary from Sheffield; he settled in London in 1757, and became a member of the Society of Artists,
associating with Benjamin Franklin and Dr Johnson. His The handmaid to the arts, London, 1758, devotes some 20 pages to the preparation of
different pastel pigments.
Lit.: Kosek 1998; Lowengard 2008; Treatises
Hugues DROLENVAUX (ﬂ. 1747-62), inspecteur en chef des ponts-et-chaussées de la haute et basse Alsace, from Strasbourg, together with Placide Schweighäuser, established the verrerie at Lettenbach near Saint-Quirin producing verre blanc referred to by Bernières (q.v.). An Arrêt du conseil d'État of 3.vii.1749 announced that "Le sieur Drolenvaux étant parvenu, après plusieurs essais, à faire du verre en table sans boudin, façon de verre blanc cristallin de Bohême, propre pour les grandes estampes, peintures en pastel et glaces de carrosse," est autorisé à construire un deuxième four à Lettembach. (Lettres patentes, 25.ix.1750.)
Jean-Baptiste DUBOIS DE JANCIGNY (1753–1808), author and salon critic.
DUFROIR, Doreur, marchand d'Etampes/Fabrique et tient magasin de bordure etc., according to the label on the back of an anonymous late 17th century pastel (London, 16.IV.1999, Lot 152).
Antoine-Charles DULAC (Paris 1729–1811), maître-peintre et doreur, marchand bijoutier, marchand de tableaux, rue des Prêtres,
paroisse Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois. He was the son of Charles-Antoine Dulac (1703–1774), maître-peintre. In 1753 he married Jeanne Guibert ( –1802); their son
Edouard-Antoine ( –1783) was a member of the Académie de Saint-Luc in 1761, as was his brother Pierre-Charles (1733–1805).
His shop was damaged in a fire of 1762; the stock included pastels. Three years later, he had reopened, selling "beaucoup de portraits en pastel,
des estampes nudité qui sont morceaux d'académie; il vend quelquefois des mignatures gaillardes." A description of the shop, its customers and
its mistress ("as tempting as the things she sold") appears in the Rev. William Cole's Journey to Paris in the year 1765 (London, 1931).
In 1777 he appeared without address: "Dulac, vend des Pastels, des Dessins & des Estampes montés."
Lit.: lettre d'Hemery, inspecteur de police, 1765, BnF, MS franc. 22121, Anisson, 2, cited Dunand 1967, p. 237; Almanach des peintres, 1777, p. 169; Michel 2007, p. 124
Gabriel Pigeon, dit DUMARETS (Paris 1721–p.1795), also Dumaret, Dumarest, Dumarests, Desmarets, rue de la Vieille-Draperie, quartier du Palais, developed a secret composition for
"pastels" (strictly, crayons de couleur), for which the Académie had
issued a certificate; the process had apparently been sold to Nadaux (q.v.) who supplied pastels from the same house as Dumarest. In
the Petites affiches, 1787, p. 288, he advertised his newly invented colour, "Outremer factice" (an improved Prussian blue); this had been submitted to the Académie royale
in 1786 and approved after several reports. It was available from the author, "rue du Harlay".
He was also mentioned in the Nouvelles de la république des lettres et des arts, 1787, p. 167. Lomet (q.v.) provided details of the process.
On 31.iii.1792, Le Barbier reported to the Académie that Desmarets was now old, infirm and poor, and
it was resolved to write to the Municipalité to request his admission to the Incurables. In an III he submitted papers on "divers moyens pour remplacer toutes les couleurs par la chimie"
to the Convention, as "Pigeon Dumaret". In 1790 he was drawing a pension on the Trésor of 400 francs, along with two brothers,
all in consideration of service to the Compagnie des Indes by their father, Jacques Pigeon, épicier, whose wife was Catherine Deneuve ( –1730).
It is likely that he was the "Dumarets peintre" recorded as a porcelain painter at
Sèvres in 1752. A "Dumarets, peintre" was an honorary member (with 21 years' service) of a masonic lodge in 1811, but this was corrected to "Desmarez" in the 1812 edition. The marriage
of a Dumarets and a demoiselle Duchaillot took place on 22.xi.1744 (insinuations, Châtelet, 17.viii.1761).
He is not to be confused with Rambert Dumarest (1750–1806), dessinateur, graveur en médailles; nor with the dealer J. Desmarest (q.v.).
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 71; 83; Jacoby 1992; Tamara Préaud, Sèvres workmen's list, online
François DUMESNIL (Bruxelles c.1710-1791), painter and picture restorer who worked on two Liotards in 1751.
Lit.: Dictionary, artists
Thomas DUMONT (Nancy 1755–p.1792), framemaker, sculpteur, ?Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912-22; Harden 1998
Charles-Vincent, abbé DUPLAQUET (1730–1811), chanoine de l'eglise d'Auch, de l'ordre de Malte, censeur royal à Saint-Quentin, author of the Éloge historique de M. Maurice-Quentin de Latour, peintre du Roi…prononcé le 2 mai 1788, Saint-Quentin, 1789
Pierre-Samuel DU PONT DE NEMOURS (1739–1817), writer, economist and salon critic.
Henry-Louis DUPRAY (Sedan 1841 – Paris 1909), pastellist responsible for unconvincing pastiches after 18th century types such as the so-called Mme de Pomapdour.
Claude DUPUIS (ﬂ. Paris a.1678), paper supplier to Nanteuil.
Lit.: Burns 2007, p. 48
Bernard DUPUY DU GREZ (1639-1720) abandoned his position as avocat au parlement to found an École publique et gratuite de dessin, supported by Crozat and Cammas, and which in 1751 became the Académie royale. In his Traité sur la peinture, Toulouse, 1699, he provides a short account of making pastel sticks, although he recommends that the pigments be purchased ready ground from a colourman (pp. 275–76).
Raoul-Arthur DUQUENNE (1834-1909), professeur de l'École gratuite de dessin, Saint-Quentin, 1876–84. His name is misspelled Duquesne in the registre de délibérations of the school.
Michel-François DUTENS (1732-1804) published a Principes abrégés de peinture in Tours in 1779; it has several references to pastel pigments. A new edition was published in Paris, advertised in 1804 by libraires Debray and Onfroy (price 2 livres 25), considerably augmented in "l'art de composer les Pastels".
Charles-Alexandre-Amaury Pineux, dit Amaury DUVAL (1760-1838), diplomate, historien, archéologue, auteur, salon critic.
DUVAL (ﬂ. Paris 1731), peintre, "qui fait d'excellent pastel" according to a letter from from the Italian sculptor Raymond Falyt (or Valit) writing from Paris to Rosalba Carriera (6.vii.1731). He may have been the pastellist Pierre Duval (q.v.). Among numerous homonyms, a Nicolas Duval, maître peintre sculpteur, rue Saint-Denis is recorded in famillesparisiennes between 1699 and 1725, possibly the Nicolas Duval active in 1757 (Bénézit).
Le marchand DUVAL, rue de la Comédie-Française, peintre et doreur en bâtiment, tient un magasin d'estampes montées et en feuilles, de
portraits de fantaisie au pastel.
Lit.: Almanach des peintres 1777, p. 172; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 13
Lazare DUVAUX (1703–1758), marchand mercier, rue de la Monnaie, Paris, jeweller and dealer in luxury items, including pictures.
Lit.: Livre-journal de Lazare Duvaux, marchand-bijoutier, 1748-1758, ed. J. Courajod, Paris, 1873; Michel 2008, pp. 30ff
Hendrik EBBENS (1726-1807), framemaker in The Netherlands, including of a number of Tischbein pastels.
Lit.: R. J. Baarsen, "Hendrik Ebbens (1726-1807) en de inlijsting van enkele stadhouderlijke portretten", Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, xxxix/4, 1991, pp. 453-64
Amédée-Théophile ECK (1841–1917), archéologue, collectionneur, conservateur au musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin 1886–1917.
Lit.: Dictionary, s.v. Tirman; Saint-Quentin 2007; F. Vallet, in Hervé Cabezas, ed., Aux origines de Saint-Quentin, 2011, pp. 75–78
Pietro EDWARDS (1744–1821), Venetian connoisseur and restorer, from a family of English origin; permanent secretary of the Veneto Liberal Collegio di Pittura;
member of the Accademia Clementina of Bologna from 1775, as well as of the San Luca in Rome and that of Parma. He carried out a number of inventories of Venetian collections, notably that of Ludovico Manin.
Lit.: Ingamells 1997; Tormen 2009, p. 245
Joseph EICHLER (1724-p.1783), pastellist and picture restorer.
Lit.: Dictionary, artists
Johann R. ELLKAR in der Kalbächergasse, Frankfurt, advertised "alle Gattungen feine Pastellfarben in denen billigsten Preisen zu haben" as well as Brunswick Green for oil and watercolour made by Friederich Wilhelm Kahrel in Hanau: Intelligenz-Blatt der freien Stadt Frankfurt, 1792, p. 17.
Alexander EMERTON (1703–1737), colourman, at the Bell, Arundell Street, advertised, in addition to materials for house painting, "fine crayons of all sorts" in the Country journal or the craftsman, 28.xii.1728; advertisements continued to appear in the 1760s. The son of Joseph Emerton of Snow Hill, also a member of the Haberdasher's Society, he was admitted to the freedom of the City in 1724. He insured his premises at the Sun Fire office from 1725, the year in which he married an Elizabeth Frances Hamersley who continued the business after his death; their son Alexander (1734– ) was also involved, and the firm was recorded until 1804. Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Le sieur d'EMERY, author of the Recueil des curiositez rares et nouvelles des plus admirables effets de la nature, Paris, 1674. The identity of the author has been confused, the 1685 English translation being erroneously credited to Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715), apothecary to the French king, but a Huguenot who ceased practice in 1685. Antoine-Joseph d'Émery or Hemery is more widely accepted.
Charles ESCOT (Gaillac 1834–1902), portraitist, pupil of Constantin-Jean-Marie Prévost at Toulouse and also at the École gratuite de
dessin à Saint-Quentin, where he lived 1875–77. He made remarkable pastel copies of the La Tour Rousseau and Liotard Mme d'Épinay at Geneva, now in
Versailles; two copies of La Tour's abbé Huber are at Tourcoing and Gaillac. A group of his pastels is in the musée at Gaillac, and includes also copies after Vigée Le Brun and
Claude Hoin. He was cited by Fleury (1908) among the best copyists of La Tour.
Lit.: Salmon 1997, pp. 157–63
Charles ESPLIN & Co.'s Paper Wareroom, High Street, Edinburgh, sold artists' colours including crayons, according to an advertisement in the Caledonian Mercury, 12.vii.1783.
Pierre ESTÈVE (Montpellier 1720 - Paris p.1790), de la Société royal des sciences à Montpellier, chemist, musicologist and salon critic. D'Hémery's police report (10.xii.1750) noted that "Ce jeune homme n'a pas de bien et est assez hardi dans ses propos."
John EVELYN (1620-1706), mentions pastels several times in his diaries.
Kaspar FABER (1730–1784), a cabinet-maker, founded a pencil factory at Stein, near Nürnberg in 1761. A descendent married into the Castell family.
Nikolai Detlef FALCK (1736-1783), surgeon, expert on venereal diseases, advertised in the Kentish gazette, 6.xi.1770, a series of six subscription lectures to take place in Canterbury covering the "natural history and doctrine of colours, relating to the various arts of painting, in water, crayons and oil."
Gustav FÄHRIG (ﬂ. Dresden 1836–62) made pastel copies of Dresden pictures, including several versions of Liotard's Chocolatière, a Mengs self-portrait and a Rotari Magdalen. He was possibly the artist of this name active in Göteborg c.1850.
Gustaf Johan FAST (1749- ), Swedish carver. Frames on Lundberg pastels from his workshop, c.1770.
Lit.: Laine & Brown 2006
Faverolle, v. Mme HÉBERT
"Le sieur FAYDIEU, rue des Fossés saint Germain l'Auxerrois, dans une porte cochére, est le premier quie ait peint le Portrait en miniature à l'huile. Il tient chez lui collection de fort jolis Tableaux & Pastels." – Mathurin Roze de Chantoiseau, Essai sur l'almanach général d'indication d'adresse personnelle et domicile fixe, des six corps, arts et métiers..., Paris, 1769. He was probably the Charles-Joseph Faydieu (1744-p.1793), peintre, of rue Montorgueil, then rue du Petit Lion, to whom a carte de sûreté were issued 6.x.1792, 15.viii.1793.
André FÉLIBIEN (1619-1695), important early theorist; his Entretiens sur les vies…des plus excellens peintres…, Paris, 1680, includes advice on framing pastels.
Thomas FENTHAM (ﬂ. London 1777-1808), framemaker and glass grinder, Strand, London. Supplied frame for Read, Simon and Etheldred Yorke.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Abraham FISCHER (Stockholm 1724-1775), Swedish soldier and topographical artist. He joined the fortifications division in 1739 and
rose to be captain in the Stockholm brigade in 1765, retiring three years later with the rank of major; he was also a chevalier of the order of
the Épée. He is best known for a series of engraved views of houses in Skåne published in 1756 from drawings by Gerhard von Buhrmann. In 1770 an
article appeared in the Journal des sçavans in which he claimed to have invented a superior method of fixing pastel.
Léone FLAMANT (1907-1969), pastellist in Saint-Quentin; she made several copies after La Tour.
Lit.: Séverin 1993
Paul-Philippe-Eugène-Joseph FLAYELLE de Xandrin (1870–1947), pharmacien, secrétaire de la commission sanitaire Saint-Quentin. He was a friend of Matisse's father. He or his son was the amateur pastellist who made a series of pastel copies of the La Tour pastels at Saint-Quentin; they appeared at auction there 21.vii.2017.
Richard FLETCHER ( –1770), framemaker, carver and gilder at the Golden-head, near the Globe tavern, London, offered
"straining-frames cloathed and pasted with paper fit for crayons" (Gazeteer and new daily advertiser, 19.iii.1766).
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Élie FLEURY (1854–1938), journalist, directeur du Journal de Saint-Quentin, and art historian, sometimes under the penname Adrian Villart; wrote extensively about La Tour
John FORD (ﬂ. London 1764–75), Chandos Street, Covent Garden, London 1764-73, corner of Henrietta Street/Bedford Street,
Covent Garden 1773-75. Artists' supplier; his trade card includes crayons.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
John FORFEIT (ﬂ. London 1762–1800), framemaker, carver and gilder, was married in 1762 and recorded at 25 Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London 1773-1800; he was described as a picture dealer in a coroner's inquest in 1778. Wakefield's directory (1790) lists him as a "picture cleaner, and frame maker, artificial florist, fillagree and wafer worker." See also Westminster rate books, poll books, apprentice records and a label found on one of a group of nine pastels said to be by Miss Sharples of Bath, but probably early works by Ellen Sharples (six sold at Gloucester, Chorley's, 29–30.i.2019, Lot 774, attr. Rolinda Sharples).
François, v. Pourvoyeur
Joseph FRATREL (1730-1783), avocat and former miniature painter to Stanislas Leszczynski, published La Cire alliée avec l'huile, ou la Peinture à huile-cire trouvée à Manheim par M. Charles Baron de Taubenheim in 1770; it contains extravagant praise for the medium of pastel.
Jeremiah FREEMAN (c.1763-1823), carver and gilder in Norwich, from c.1791 (a label found on a pastel by Vaslet p.1829 cannot be by this maker).
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Élie-Catherine FRÉRON (1718-1776), journaliste et critique.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 284ff
Il cavaliere Francesco Maria Niccolò GABBURRI (1676-1742), v. Collectors.
Louise GALAND-LEGENDRE (1905–1997), pastellist and painter, 18 rue de l'Étoile, Paris, exhibited at the Salons. She was born Louise-Marguerite Galand, the daughter of Léon Galand and Claire-Augustine Dyonnet, both painters, and in 1946 she married Pierre Legendre. She copied a Perronneau, Mlle Huquier.
John David GALLIARD (1756–1791), 12 Noel Street, London, 1779, 227 Piccadilly 1783-85, 14 Barton Street and Marsham Street, Westminster 1790.
Artists' suppliers. Advertised Swiss crayons in the Public advertiser, 7.vi.1783, the World, 10.xii.1790 etc., invented by the late
Stoupan (q.v.) and improved by Pache (q.v.) and Galliard, who were, according to Galliard's 1784 trade card, awarded a prize by the
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers, & Commerce. On 25.vii.1777, at St James's, Westminster, he married Ann Hidlitch (1752–1826); the witnesses included
Charles Pache (q.v.; Galliard in turn attended Pache's wedding). Ann Galliard continued in business
after Galliard's death, recorded in Poland Street 1794; Ozias Humphry paid Mrs Galliard £1/16/- on 1.viii.1793 according to his bank book; William Ward was another customer.
Lit.: Kosek 1998; Wakefield's directory, 1790; British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk
Pierre GARNIER (ﬂ. 1769–77), artificier du roi, rue des Bourdonnois, Versailles, established a new manufactory for "crayons de toutes les espéces & de toutes les couleurs", advertised in L'Avant-Coureur, 2.ii.1769, p. 85. They were probably closer to Conté crayons than to pastel.
Antoine-Joseph, abbé GARRIGUES DE FROMENT (1702–1766), salon critic. D'Hémery's police report (1750).
Pierre-Marie GAULT de SAINT-GERMAIN (1754-1842), artist, writer and inventor.
Hubert GAUTIER de Nîmes (1660–1737), médecin, mathématicien, ingénieur de la marine royale, de l'Académie des sciences & belles-lettres
de Dijon, author of L'Art de laver…, Lyon, 1687, an early treatise on watercolour, mentions also plumbago and other techniques. He includes recipes for fabricating chalk
crayons of all colours, although the emphasis is on making them hard enough to draw with: "car le plus souvent on les fait trop mols & ainsi s'usant trop facilement, on n'en peut
pas dessiner, ou bien autrement étant trop durs à cause de l'eau gommée qui est trop forte, on ne peut pas les faire marquer."
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135; Monnier 1984, p. 109, erroneously printing extract from Emery with Prince Rupert's recipe as from Gautier; Dictionary, artists, Ruprecht; Burns 2007, p. 21f
Jacques-Fabien GAUTIER-DAGOTY (1711–1785), pastellist. Between 1752 and 1755 he published Observations sur l'histoire naturelle, sur la physique et sur la peinture which included
critiques of the salons of 1751, 1753 and 1755.
Dictionary, artists; d'Hémery's police report (1751)
Magdeleine GEOFFROY (ﬂ. 1890), Swiss copyist or pasticheur of XVIIIe portraits in pastel.
Paul GEORGES ( –1768), framemaker, maître-menuisier, ébéniste a.1747, Paris. His widow Marie-Henriette Le Bouvier continued the business, rue du Roi de Sicile, rue Saint-Antoine 1774–85
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998; AN Y5319
Louise GERMAIN (1874-1939), impressionist painter and pastellist asociated with Cézanne, copied a Perronneau in the Louvre (Mlle Huquier) in 1911.
Edmé-François GERSAINT (1694-1750), Paris dealer and auctioneer.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a
M. GIDE, négociant, rue Saint-Louis du Palais, "tenait des boîtes de pastel de la composition du sieur Michod, établi en Suisse" (Duchesne 1801, II, p. 246). He was probably Xavier Gide (1737–1814), horologer, recorded at this address in 1762 (tontine, AN); he was an associate of Abraham-Louis Breguet.
Philippe GIMBLET (ﬂ. 1777), publisher of the Nieuwen almanach der konst-schilders, vernissers, vergulders en marmelaers for 1777, which included an article "Van de Schilderinge in Pastel" (pp. 228–40).
Maître GIRARD, rue l'Evesque, Paris, manufacturer of pastels, according to Christiaan Huygens's undated note in Adversaria: "Maistre Girard, demeurant Rue de l'Evesque qui faisait de ces crayons"
Lit.: Huygens 1888-1950, IV, pp. 349, note to letter of 30.v.1663
GIRAULT, French suppliers of pastels said to have been made continuously since 1780. The earliest published directory entry (Annuaire général du
commerce, 1855) lists (François-Pierre) Girault père (1783–1858; he married, 15.iv.1815, a Marguerite-Hélène Brasseur) at 34 Marché-Neuf and (Jean-François-Alexis)
Girault (1821– ) fils at 11 quai Saint-Michel. In 1845 their daughter Cécile-Hélène (1825–1890), married Jean-Joseph Drouet who carried on the business.
Research published here in 2021 noted an entry in the registre de clôtures d'inventaires (6.ii.1768, AN Y5926) for "Jean-François Giraud faiseur des crayons de
Pastelle demeurant à Paris rue St Honoré" after the death of his wife Anne-Geneviève Chéron; her grandfather was Jérôme Chéron (q.v.), who seems to have supplied pastels to Rosalba.
They were related to the Bouffé family and thereby to the
painter Pierre Le Brun and his daughter-in-law Vigée Le Brun etc. Jean-François Giraud was the grandfather of François-Pierre Girault; the business may well have been
carried on in between by the widow of the former's son, François-Pierre Girault (1748-1793), a maître tailleur: in 1777 he married Marie-Magdeleine Janvier (1746-1822),
who may well be the "Mme Giraud" who supplied pastels to René Coiffier (q.v.) in his 1810 accounts. She had been an "ouvrière en mode" at the time of her first marriage in 1770.
Dictionary, genealogies, Bouffé
Gabriel GIRODON (1884–1941) was conservateur of the musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin, from 1939 to 1941. He made several pastels showing the distribution of
the La Tour pastels at the château de Mézangers in 1941 (Saint-Quentin, inv. LT 135 etc.).
Lit.: Séverin 1993
François-Simon-Alphonse GIROUX (1775-1848), ébéniste, picture-dealer and painter, said to have been a pupil of David. Soon after he established a picture restoration business, trading as Maison Alphonse Giroux or Giroux & Cie, and situated at 7 rue du Coq-Saint-Honoré by the early 1800s. By 1810, advertisements in the Journal de Paris from the sign Au Coq-Honoré included "pastels de Paris et de Lauzanne" [sic]; these advertisements included a wide range of merchandise, possibly taken over from the firm of Coiffier (q.v.), his immediate neighbour at no. 9. On 11.vii.1796 Giroux married Claudine Collin de La Perrière (he was then described as a marchand de tableaux, living at his father's, 133 rue Montmartre); their eldest son André (1801–1879) was a painter. Giroux père was succeeded by his son, Alphonse-Gustave Giroux (1809–1886) in 1838. The firm supplied the frame on a pastel by Petit, homme, sd 1817. "M. Giroux, au Coq-Honoré, fait des chassis garni de cette manière, sur lesquels mord très-bien le pastel", according to Jacques-Philippe Voiart in describing the use of pastels "sur une toile préparée à l'huile, ce qui donne au pastel plus de durée et une similitude avec ce genre." (Entretiens sur la théorie de la peinture, 1820, p. 129).
Jean-Baptiste GLOMY (1711-1786), graveur amateur, mounter and expert in public sales, associated with
Gersaint, Remy and Helle. He married a Jeanne Cholet ( –1781). In a notice in the Mercure de France,
.iv.1771, p. 206, he warned amateurs of the need for his long experience to mount certain drawings, "principalement ceux où il y a du pastel",
"sans quoi ils risquent d'être gâtés."
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 43; Marandet 2003a; Michel 2008: Volle & al. 2020
Ferdinand-Joseph GODEFROID (p.1660-1741), peintre du prince de Carignan, picture dealer and restorer to the royal collection, partner of Charles
Godefroy (q.v.), killed in a duel by Jérôme-François Chantereau over a disputed picture; his widow (∞1726), née Marie-Jacobe Van Merle ou
Vanmerlen (1701-1775) took over his business with
François-Louis Colins (1699-1760), a picture dealer from Brussels. Valade exhibited her portrait in the salon de 1755.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 45f; Marandet 2003a; Marandet 2008; Trudon des Ormes 18906, for Mme's correct dates; Volle & al. 2020; Dictionary, artists, Chantereau; collectors
Charles GODEFROY ( -1748), his two sons Charles-Théodose (1718-1796) and Auguste-Gabriel (1728-1813), patrons of Chardin. Godefroy was
a partner of the restorer Godefroid (q.v.).
Lit.: Chardin 1979; Marandet 2003; Marandet 2008
John GORE (1717–1796) advertised "crayons…sold cheap for cash" in the Boston gazette (9.iii.1761); five years later he offered "crayons in sets". His son Samuel (1751–1831) advertised imported "fine Crayons" and "Crayon Paper" as well as other artists' materials, from Court Street, Boston, in the Massachusetts Centinel (7.v.1788).
Antoine-Joseph GORSAS (1751–1793), imprimeur-libraire, journaliste and salon critic.
Three sons of Jean GOSSET, a Huguenot from Jersey: Gideon (1707-1785), Isaac (1713-1799) and Jacob or James ( -1788) were active as
carvers, gilders and framemakers in London probably by 1733. Jean's brother Matthew Gosset (1683-1744), carver and wax modeller, was in London
by 1709. Isaac was also a wax modeller, and is the most prominent member of the family; he is probably "Gosset the frame maker" (possibly Gideon)
who supplied "architrave gold frames" and glasses to Arthur Pond, 1735-49, as well as for pastels by Hoare, Cotes and possibly Liotard
(who portrayed him in profile), mainly dating to the 1740s. Elisabeth Duparc sent pictures to the Fee Society 1763 from "Mr Gosset, Berwick Street", probably Gideon.
Lit.: Tessa Murdoch, "Courtiers and classics: the Gosset family", Country life, CLXXVII, 1985, pp. 1282f; London 1985b; Simon 1996; British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Jean-Gabriel GOULINAT (1883–1972), restaurateur de dessins et d'estampes à Paris.
Pierre GOULVEAUT (1756–p.1824), doreur, active in London in 1824 (Lawrence, Mrs Fitzherbert), but no doubt trained in Paris. He was married to a Marie Helme, and their daughter Françoise was said to have been born in London c.1783. In 1796 he was living in Boulogne-sur-Mer.
Albert GRAND, restorer, dealer and collector.
Sebastian ("Bassanio") GRANDI (ﬂ. London 1789-1806), 6 Brownlow Street, Long Acre 1806. Italian colourman; he sold
crayons to Joseph Farington, 1796 (Farington 1978-84, III, p. 1009). In 1806 he received the Society of Arts silver medal and premium, for
materials including crayons "which are greatly superior to any in use"; the recipe consited of bone-ash powder mixed with spermaceti, to which the
pigment was added, together with white chalk if softer pastels were required. He was portrayed by Reynolds and Opie. A colourful character, in
1806 he was tried for murder but acquitted.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk; Transactions of the Society of Arts, XXIV, 1802, pp. 85ff
François GRASSET (ﬂ. c.1764), libraire à Lausanne, supplier of pastels by Stoupan (q.v.).
Mme Alexandre GRAVIER, née Florence-Estelle-Léontine Barthélémy (1835–p.1887), illustrator and pastellist, born in France but living in England in 1881, produced pastiches in the manner of Vigée Le Brun etc.
Pierre GRÉGOIRE [Petrus Gregorius] (1540-1597), of Toulouse, author of an early treatise which mentions the manufacture of crayons de couleur, Syntaxeon artis mirabilis, published in Lyon around 1574 (with other editions of similar dates).
Lit.: Lavallée 1949, p. 77; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p.138; Jeffares 2006, p. 23; Burns 2007, p. 5
Friedrich Melchior Baron von GRIMM (1723–1807), salon critic.
William GRISBROOK (1831-1901), London picture restorer; succeeded by his son, William Jr; restored six pastels and chalk drawings for NPG, 1919.
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk
L'abbé Jean-Baptiste-Alexandre GROSIER (1743–1823), chanoine de Saint-Louis au Louvre, bibliothécaire de l'Arsenal, collaborator and continuer of Fréron's L'Année littéraire, salon critic.
Hélène GUICHARNAUD was conservateur of the musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin, from 1974 to 1978.
Jean GUIFFREY (1870–1952), conservateur au département des peintures at the Louvre 1918-34.
Georg Christoph GÜNTHER (1736-1777), author of an early manual on pastel painting.
Louis-Bernard GUYTON DE MORVEAU (1757-1816), a lawyer in Dijon before becoming a chemist, inventor repsonsible for zinc white, mentioned by Chaperon 1788, pp. 65ff, as M. de Morvau.
Detlev Moritz Georg Heinrich Wilhelm Freiherr von HADLEN (1878–1935), from a military family, studied Venetian painting at Jena and Florence before working at Dresden and Berlin.
During the First World War he served in the German army's Kunstschutz, and was responsible for the removal to Maubeuge of the La Tour pastels in 1917, and
for the printed catalogue.
Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2007
Frau Christoph Johann Werner, née Anna Maria HAID (1688-1753), credited by some sources as the inventor of pastel.
Mme HÉBERT (ﬂ. Paris 1774-76), pastel supplier.
Pierre-Charles-Alexandre HELLE ( -1767), ingénieur, art expert and dealer, collaborator of Rémy (q.v.).
Lit.: Marandet 2003a; Michel 2008
Jean Christoph HELMODT, Helmoldt, Hellmoldt, Helmholdt, Hellmold, or Helmod (1743–1824), from Osterode, pastel manufacturer in Lausanne,
apprentice and successor to Stoupan (q.v.). From the
early 1790s he was exporting to Leipzig, Berlin, London, St Petersburg, Moscow etc. An advertisement in Lloyd's evening post, 27.vi.1792,
records that "Mr Helmhold, successor to the late Mr Stoupan, of Lausanne, in Switzerland, Manufacturer of Pastels, or Swiss Crayons, is just arrived,
and has improved a number of Setts and Half-Setts, warranted the best, and at the most reasonable Prices. His stay will be very short."; he gave
the address of Mr Chabaud, Plumtree Street, Bloomsbury. In the autumn of 1793, Helmoldt recorded that he had visited
London the previous summer, "les boites de pastel remplissant la vache attachée au dessus de la voiture". In a letter of 29.xi.1793, Helmoldt mentioned that the
boxes were available in two sizes with two contents (normal and reduced) for prices of 10 and 20 Swiss livres, or 17 and 34. However in 1794 pastels were damaged
during transport from Basel to London.
Lit.: William Guthrie, Nouvelle géographie universelle, Paris, 1802, III, p. 244; Revue historique vaudoise, 1943, p. 171; Revue historique vaudoise, 1985, p. 68; Hugues Jahier, "Un article recherché d'exportation lausannoise vers l'Angleterre du XVIIIe siècle", Revue historique vaudoise, XCV, 1987, pp. 67–83; Corinne Curat, in Lausanne 2018, p. 59f
"S & I. L. HENRY, Pencil-Makers, No 20 William-street, [New York], nearly opposite the Post office. Returns thanks to their friends who have favoured them with commands, and informs them that they continually keep on hand, a general assortment of goods in the above line. Any orders sent will be executed with Punctuality and dipatch. They have for sale, a few sets of the beautiful crayon colour pencils, of 36, 24, and 18 different shades, neatly made and put up in paper or wood cases, to be used as Swiss Crayons....." Mercantile advertiser, 29.VII.1799.
Mademoiselle HERBAN, rue de Condé, Faubourg Saint-Germain, supplied "crayons en boîtes & demi-boîtes, assorties pour peindre en pastel, dont la vivacité des couleurs ne cedent en rien à celle des crayons de Lausanne", according to Roze de Chantoiseau 1782-92, p. 58. This is perhaps a mistake for Mme Hébert (q.v.), although it might be a misprint for Herban: Louis-Étienne Herban (1768–1854), "artiste", awarded a patent for the composition of solid printing materials using new chemical and mechanical processes, 1798.
Nicolas HEURTAUT (1720-1771), probably the nephew of the homonymous sculptor reçu de l'Académie de Saint-Luc 17.x.1741; maître-menuisier 1753, framemaker, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Salverte 1962; Harden 1998
Joseph HICK, of "No 56, Mill Hill, Leeds, Carver, Gilder, Picture Frame and Looking Glass Manufacturer, Old Glasses resilvered, ladies Needle Work neatly Framed and Glazed", according to his trade card, supplied at least one frame to John Russell (Paley, 1802).
Aloys HIRT (1759–1837), German archaeologisst, art historian and salon critic.
Jean-François HONNETE (1735-c.1793), credited with the invention of wax pastel. In 1786 he advertised pastels
"recouverts de manière à ne point se salir les Mains en peignant."
Samuel van HOOGSTRAETEN (1627-1678), painter, engraver and author of an early treatise Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst (1678) with recipe for pastel fixative.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 138
Joseph-Ignace-Isidor HUBER (Augsburg 16.iv.1759-Paris 27.iii.1817), graveur à Paris 1779, pupil of Wille, print-seller and maker of crayons and couleurs, 47 (later 71) Quai de l'Horloge, Paris. In 1792 he married Adélaïde-Marguerite Pouillard, sister-in-law of Claude-Alexandre Meunier (q.v.) whose business he valued in the 1798 inv. p.m. and subsequently took over. The business was continued by his son Joseph-Frédéric Huber (1794-1845), and later taken over in turn by Macle (q.v.) c.1838.
Solomon HUDSON (1741-1829), carver and gilder, 16 Great Titchfield Street, London until 1793 before retiring to Chertsey. He also had
26 Portland Place built c.1778 by Robert Adam; it was occupied by Lord Sandys. His son John was a captain, RN. Hudson supplied frames for the
Russell pendants, Prince of Wales and Mrs Fitzherbert, 1791, £42 16s. paid .IX.1793.
Lit.: Miller 1976, p. 109; British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk; Univ. Nottingham MSS collection
Thomas HUDSON (ﬂ. 1786-88), pastel-maker of 18 Angel Court, Westminster (not apparently related to Solomon Hudson, q.v.),
according to his advertisement in the Morning herald, 24.i.1787: "To the Artists, &c. The true
Swiss crayons, prepared by Mr. Hudson, No. 18, Angel-court, Princess-street, Westminster, appointed to be sold by Mr Cornell, Stationer to
his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in Bruton street, Berkeley-square; and by Mr. Pool [James Poole (q.v.)], colourman, No. 163, High
Holborn, and no where else. These crayons work free and mellow all alike, they do not snap and break, or hard, like most others now made, and
being prepared by a different process, the colours (or tints) are in the highest perfection, and have been approved of by numbers of eminent artists &c. They
are sold in sets at 10s. 6d. 1l. 1s. and 2l. 2s. each, and sets of black and white, with full shades of greys, from 2s. 6d. to 5s. and upward.–
N.B. These Crayons are almost one half less in price, than they have hitherto been sold for. Always ask for the Crayons prepared by Mr. Hudson as above."
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk; Westminster rate books (for first name)
Joel HULBERT ( -c.1816), carver and gilder, 12 Camden Street, Dublin, in 1798; he was appointed toll collector at Monastereven, near Dublin, in 1800, and became
an informer against the United Irishmen. He was probably a son of the Joel Hulbert listed as a clockmaker in Dublin in 1728, and may have been the
Joel Frederick Hulbert who married Martha Powell at St Anne's, Dublin, 1787. His sons George and William were recorded as carvers and gilders, 36 Dawson Street, in 1798 but are absent from 1799 on. Robert
Hulbert, presumably a third son, is recorded in 1799. Frames on pastels by Hamilton, Mrs La Touche; the Misses La Touche, c.1795; and an unidentified man, all with Camden Street label.
Lit.: Paul Caffrey, in Gorry Gallery exh. cat. 2-12.III.2005; Knight of Glin, Irish furniture, 2007, p. 293; Irish deeds index
Mme veuve HUQUIER, probably the widow of André-Aimé Huquier ( -1763), née Marie-Geneviève Morice ou Maurice (Paris 1738-Orleans 23.IV.1795), advertised artists' materials from place du Martroi, Orléans in the Annonces, affiches... in 1776 and 1782.
M. HURTRAY, [?René-Louis (1891–1975), photographe] Saint-Quentinois, along with Raphael Bouquet, "sont des portraitistes distingués notamment dans leurs têtes au pastel, ou leurs copies de la Tour."
Lit.: "L'art à Saint-Quentin", Le Grand Echo de l'Aisne, 1.v.1926, p. 1
Ferrante IMPERATO (1550-1625), author of Dell' historia naturale, Naples, 1599, in which composition of drawing sticks is discussed.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135; Kosek 1998, p. 2, n.16; Grove art online
"On trouve à l'IMPRIMERIE ROYAL DU CAP", in Saint-Domingue, according to an advertisement in Les Affiches américaines on 7.vii.1784 (p. 424, and later dates) offered "boîtes de couleur pour la miniature, pastels & autres…".
Étienne-Louis INFROIT (1720-1794), maître-sculpteur 14.viii.1759; maître-menuisier 1768, 24 rue Amelot; he was "interdit pour cause de faiblesse d'esprit en 1771",
his wife being appointed his guardian. The business was continued by his sons Louis-Claude (c.1760–p.1838), maître peintre-doreur, and Claude Infroit (a.1764-p.1810),
maître-sculpteur; maître-menuisier 26.iii.1777, rue de la Roquette 1777, rue de Charonne, rue Amelot by 1794, framemakers, Paris. The E L Infroit stamp appears on a
frame for a 1781 pastel by Mlle Capet, ten years after his interdiction, as well as on Mme Roslin's 1771 Pigalle.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Salverte 1962; Harden 1998
Fernand-Léon-Oscar ISRAËL (1872–1926), adjoint 1917, puis conservateur 1921–26 des musées de Saint-Quentin. Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2007
Mathurin ITÉGUIEMME, Itéquiemme ou Itéquieme, cloître Saint-Sulpice, Orléans, advertised "toile à peindre à l'huile & au pastel…à vendre a bon compte", Journal de l'Orléanais, 18.iv.1788. He advertised in the local newspapers from 1764 to 1791, offering to paint portraits and other genres, to teach drawing and to sell materials. He was recorded in 1758 in the Orléans masonic loge of Saint-Jean des enfants de la sagesse et de la concorde, and in 1772 painted and gilded an alter for a local church. At the 1763 baptism of a daughter to his marriage with Victoire Prevost, he was described as a "peintre".
Jacques, v. Beffroy
Benjamin JAGGER (ﬂ. Norwich 1765-93), carver, gilder and printseller; in 1769 he married Mary Storer in Norwich. He advertised in the Norfolk chronicle, 31.viii.1793, offering the stock from his shop in the Market Place, Norwich which he was compelled to leave; it included glasses, frames, "a few good Pictures; fine Drawings on Vellum, chalks and others...some sets of Crayons."
Marie-Victoire JAQUOTOT (1772-1855), peintre sur porcelaine: c.1820 made a series of small oval copies after well-known pastels by Ducreux, Kucharski, La Tour and Roslin (Louvre).
Paul JAMOT (1863–1939), conservateur au Louvre.
Philippe-Auguste JEANRON (1808–1877), directeur des musées nationaux 1848–49.
Mr JOHNSON, presumably Thomas Johnson (1723–1799), is credited in the exhibition catalogue with the frame for a pastel by Daniel Dodd, of Mr Vivarez,
exhibited at the Free Society in 1762.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Anon. "abonné de JOINVILLE en Champagne, homme caracterisé et digne de foi", advertised a method of fixing pastel in the Annonces, affiches et avis
divers of .iii.1758; in 1766 he added that pastels fixed in this way could have a varnish applied in place of the glass.
Lit.: Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 149
Louis-Quentin JOLY (Saint-Quentin 1744 - Paris p.1793), maître sculpteur, doreur et peintre, rue Saint-Honoré, à côté de l'Opéra, member of the Académie de Saint-Luc, reçu 1770; in 1789 (when he entered a contract to postpone his debts) he had a magazin d'estampes. By 1793 he was living at quai de Gesvres 19. He had moved to Paris in 1759, the son of Nicolas-Quentin Joly, maître menuisier and brother of Nicolas-Quentin Joly, maître menuisier (who married the daughter of Louis-Augustin Lanté, maître menuisier, 25.v.1771; her brother Nicolas was a miniaturist). He was probably the Joly who supplied a number of frames to the pastellist Boze.
Charles-Antoine JOMBERT (1712-1784), author of Méthode pour apprendre le dessin, Paris, 1755, and editor of the 1766 edition of de Piles's Elémens de peinture.
François-Étienne JOUBERT ( –1836), in 1787, took over the business of J.-F. Chéreau, Au deux piliers d'or, rue de la Sorbonne, just before 1800; he supplied
"toutes fournitures et assortiments en Géographie, Globes, Sphères, Musique, Papiers, Crayons, Pastels, Boëtes de couleur, etc." In 1821 he published a Manuel de l'amateur d'estampes.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913, p. 253; Vincent Milliot, Les "Cris de Paris", Paris, 1995
Charles-François JOULLAIN (c.1735-1790), son of the dealer François Joullain (q.v.), supplied frames.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a
Dom Claude JOURDAIN (1696–1782), correspondant of Desfriches.
Sébastien JURINE (Lyon 1722 – Geneva 1779), inventor and pastel fixer.
Dictionary, artists; Genealogies, Jurine
Johann Christian KALLER (1725–1794), art dealer and auctioneer, advertised artists' materials in the Intelligenz-Blatt der freien Stadt Frankfurt, 17.iv.1784, including "gantze Sortimenter Pastelfarben von der berühmten Fabrique des Herrn J. Baptiste Michod, ehemalen unter dem Nahmen Bernard Stupan bekannt, in diesem Bilder-Saal zu haben, die großen Sortiments kosten 22 fl. und die kleinen 14 fl."
Elizabeth Randall KEATING (ﬂ. London 1782-92). In a 3-page memorial to the President and Council of the Royal Academy (RA Archives, RAA/SEC/2/91/1, 1792), she offers
to demonstrate her method of manufacturing crayons, and makes reference to Valentine Green. See also "Regarding Mrs. Keeting and her Swiss-style crayons", 3.v.1782, Committee
Minutes of the Committee on Polite Arts, [R]SA Minutes of Various Premium Committees 1781-82 [R]SA PR.GE/112/12/23. She may have been related to the colourman Robert
Keating ( –1758) of The White Hart, Long Acre, who supplied canvases for oil painting to Katherine Read in 1755.
Lit.: Lowengard 2008
Thomas KEYSE (1721-1800) was awarded a bounty of 30 gns "for the discovery of his method of painting in fixed crayons" by the Society of
Arts in 1764.
Lit.: Museum rusticum et commerciale, II, 1764, p. 376
Henri KONECKI (ﬂ. Besançon 1974–80), pupil at the école de La Tour de Saint-Quentin; copyist of La Tour pastels.
Josef KRIMPACHER (ﬂ. Salzburg 1754) made the gilt frames for a series of pastels of the abbots of St. Peter by J. G. Troger (q.v.) in Salzburg in 1754.
Matthias KUGLER (1692-1752), and his pupil Joseph Deibel (q.v.); wood carvers from Munich who supplied the frames for Rosalba's pastels in Dresden.
Lit.: Christoph Schölzel, "Der Dresdener Galerierahmen Geschichte, Technik, Restaurierung", Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, XVI, 2002, pp. 104-29
Tadeusz Konicz, dit KUNTZE (Zielonej Górze 1727 – Rome 1793), painter, was trained in Rome at the Académie de France, 1747–52, and painted religious and allegorical pictures there in the tradition of Reni and Solimena. In 1756 he was sent to Paris where he made oil copies (all in Wilanów) of artists' portraits in the Académie royale, including after pastels by La Tour (Dumont le Romain, Restout) and Lundberg (Boucher, Natoire). He returned to Poland in 1757 before settling in Rome in 1759.
Jacques LACOMBE (1724–1811), salon critic, author of Dictionnaire portatif des beaux-arts, 1753; this has a short entry on
pastel. Articles on pastel (by Blanquart de Septfontaines, q.v.) and pastel fixing appeared in his Encyclopédie méthodique. Arts et métiers mécaniques, tom. VI, 1789.
Lit.: Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 10f; Treatises
Laclef, v. Lefranc
Étienne LA FONT DE SAINT-YENNE (Lyon 1688 - Paris 1771) [de La Font, Lafond etc.], influential early salon critic and enthusiast for history painting, but dismissive of
portraiture. His reactionary views on the decadence of French art in his 1747 Réflexions… were particularly targetted against pastel, which he described as an
"espéce de Peinture excessivement à la mode". Of a somewhat obscure family, he commenced his career as a dessinateur de modèle pour les manufactures de Lyon et de Tours,
before becoming a member of Marie Leszczynska's court 1729–37, and a corresponding member of the
Académie des sciences, belles-lettres & arts de Lyon.
Lit.: Grove 1996; d'Hémery's police report (1749)
Jean-Henry de LA FONTAINE (c.1600-p.1678), ingénieur ordinaire du roi, conseiller du roi, professeur es sciences mathématiques, author of L'Académie de la peinture, Paris, 1679, dedicated to the duc de Montausier; it contains a brief reference to pastel. (Previous publications included Le Doctrine militaire, 1667.) On 21.ii.1665 Nanteuil was parrain to one of his daughters (Saint-André-des-Arcs).
Lafosse, v. Delafosse
Philippe de LA HIRE (1640–1718), author of an early Traité de la pratique de la peinture, 1699, published by the Académie des sciences in 1730; it
describes pastel sets manufactured to provide homogeneous consistency.
Mme André LAIGNEAU, née Zoé-Anne-Marie Ernault (1885–1965), pastellist, pasticheur and copyist of XVIIIe pastels.
Gerard de LAIRESSE (1640-1711), painter and author of Het groot schilderboek, 1707, in which the process of mezzotint was compared with crayon drawing on dark paper.
Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançois de LALANDE (1732-1807), astronome, de l'Académie des sciences. The subject of a pastel by Ducreux, his
Voyage d'un François en Italie provided a description of the pastel fixing method of the principe di San Severo (q.v.). A summary
of the technique appeared in L'Avant-Coureur, 22.i.1770, pp. 52ff.
Lit.: Burns 2007
André LAMBERT (1752-1797; maître-sculpteur 1783), framemaker, Paris, rue de Charonne 1776; rue de Lappe; rue Traversière; his wife was Marie-Anne Carré.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998
Lambertye, v. Constant; Paillard
La comtesse de LAMOTE-BARACÉ, née Francoise De Paule-Marie-Thérèse de Virieu (1814-1898), amateur pastellist, made, at the age of 80, a competent pastel copy of a 1794 portrait by Marchand (signed Ctesse de LB).
"Jacques LANGLOIS [ﬂ. Paris 1748–60)], Maitre Peintre & Marchand de Couleurs, demeurant Ruë St Victor, vis-à-vis les Ecoles de St Nicolas du Chardonnet, dans la Porte cochere, au coin de la Ruë du Paon, à Paris, avertit le Public, qu'il fait de très-beaux Carmins de differentes qualitez & Prix; toutes sortes de belles Lacques tendres & brunes, tant pout les Pastelles que pour l'Huile & Mignatures; des Rouges bruns & lasqueux pour les Pastelles; le Bleu de Prusse de toute espece; les Vernis gras, blancs & colorez, ainsi que tout autre Vernis, & l'esprit de Vin stillé, de Grun d'Angleterre, de Rome & autres couleurs de sa Fabrique." – Nouvelles d'Amsterdam, 2.vii.1748, p. 4. "Sr Langlois" appears in the account book of Jean-Nicolas Vernezobre who owed him 162 livres.
Patricia LANGMEAD (1945- ), printmaker and copyist in pastel, after Russell.
Charles Lapause, dit Henry LAPAUZE (1867–1925), historien et critique d'art. He was a member of the Conseil supérieur des beaux-arts, and was appointed director of the Petit-Palais in 1905. He published his influential study on the La Tour pastels at Saint-Quentin in 1898. Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2007
Joseph, abbé de LA PORTE (1714–1779), jesuit, journalist and salon critic; friend of the abbé Raynal. He collaborated with Fréron on the Année littéraire, and founded the Observateur littéraire in 1759. D'Hémery described him as "un homme de mauvaise compagnie."
M. de LA PORTE [ﬂ. Paris 1755)], professeur de mathématiques, salon critic. Perhaps the gouverneur du prince Charles de Ligne who published some verses in 1750.
Maurice-Quentin de LA TOUR (1704–1788), inveterate experimenter in pastel, believed to have a secret method of fixing them
which the Goncourts tantalisingly suggested was described in a letter which Frédéric Villot would publish. Perhaps this was his idea of sealing the pastel between two
sheets of glass.
La Tour, v. s.n. Constant
Le R.P. Marc-Antoine LAUGIER (1711–1769), jésuite, secrétaire d'ambassadeur, salon critic.
Le sieur de LAUNAY (ﬂ. 1750), quai de Gesvres, recommended by Petit de Bachaumont to maréchal d'Isenghein for his "Bordures de composition". He
may be the supplier of the composition frame for La Tour's Orry (Louvre), bearing the stamp "ornements de composition/D.L".
Lit.: Pons 1987
François LAURAIRE (ﬂ. 1765–80), peintre et doreur de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, reçu sculpteur 1759, rue des Prêtres Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois,
"a ouvert un magasin de bordures dorées et de portraits au pastel". He also offered "des mignatures indécentes et beaucoup de portraits". He was
married to a Marie Gouble who died in 1777, leaving three minor children; in 1780 he married a Mlle Cartier.
Lit.: lettre d'Hemery, inspecteur de police, 1765, BnF, MS franc. 22121, Anisson, 2, cited Dunand 1967, p. 237; Almanach des peintres, 1777, p. 171; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 13
Le sieur LAVIOLETTE, marchand d'estampes, Limoges, advertised "Boîtes de pastel" in the Feuille hebdomadaire de la généralité de Limoges, 1.i.1777, p. 96.
Katharina LEATHAM copied pastels by Rosalba c.1905. The name was misread as Leathman in older sale records. She was probably Mary Katherine Leatham (1882-1971) who married Ralph Pomeroy in 1907.
L'abbé Jean-Bernard LE BLANC (1707-1781), salon critic.
Jean-Baptiste-Pierre LE BRUN (1748-1813), dealer.
Dictionary, artists; collectors
L'abbé Jean-Francois Brun, dit LE BRUN (Saint-Zacharie, Var 11.xi.1732 – Dampierre-en-Bray 15.iv.1804), chanoine de Saint-Pierre, Beauvais,
vicaire-général de Sagonne 1776, membre correspondant de l’Académie de Bordeaux 1776, chapelain de feue princesse de Conti douairière a.1775,
chapelain des religieuses de Bellechasse en 1775, auteur de l'Almanach historique et raisonné des architectes, peintres, sculpteurs, graveurs et ciseleurs,
published in Paris, 1776 and 1777. It contains sections on "Productions de Messieurs les Artistes de l'Académie de Saint-Luc" etc. It did not meet with universal approval:
the engraver Charles-Etienne Gaucher published a "Désaveu des artistes..." in 1776.
Often erroneously credited to Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun (q.v.), the author's name was first established with certainty in Jeffares 2021b. His family
was unrelated to Charles Le Brun despite the claim to be his grand=nephew.
Lit.: Fabienne Camus, Burlington magazine, .x.1993, pp. 692f; Jeffares 2021b
René LE CLERC (?1911–1990) was conservateur of the musée Antoine-Lécuyer, Saint-Quentin, from 1946 to 1974. He recatalogued the La Tour collections, with
numbers prefixed LT. A manuscript notebook (c.1950?) contains observations on the items, including several which he thought were fakes substituted for stolen originals.
Lit.: Séverin 1993
Georges LECOCQ (1849– ), avocat, secrétaire général et archiviste de la Société académique de Saint-Quentin, historien local.
Florent LE COMTE (?1655-1712), collector and author of a critique of the Salon de 1699 in which Vivien's pastels are discussed.
Lit.: Jal 1872
LEFRANC, Paris, suppliers of pastels from 1775. The firm's origins date to c.1720, with an ancestor, Charles de La Clef, who
founded a "commerce de pigments et d’épices" rue du Four-Saint-Germain, au coin de celle Princesse with the encouragement of Chardin. Around 1775 the
business passed to his son Louis-Robert Laclef (1752–p.1793) who married an Elisabeth Balland ( –1851). Their daughters Julie (1787– ), Louise-Victoire-Elisabeth and Adèle (1796– ) were married respectively to
Marie-Alexandre Lefranc (1806), Jean-Baptiste-Lauren Aubry (1811) and Marin-Alexandre Marolle (1817); the business (which had moved to rue Princesse 258 by 1793) passed first to the latter, and then to his nephews were Alphonse and Jules
Lefranc who took over the business and moved the factory to Grenelle.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913; Kosek 1998
Legendre, v. Galand-Legendre
Louis-Nicolas LEMASLE (1788–1870), peintre, was conservateur of the musée de Saint-Quentin, from c.1830 to 1856. In 1835 he was accused by a predecessor,
Pingret, of having substituted copies of La Tour pastels for the originals, but the accusation was held to be without foundation. Three years later Pingret repeated the
accusation, in relation to the portrait of Manelli, having seen an identical work in a Paris dealer's. Lemasle's daughter Léopoldine-Marguerite-Cécile (1827–1879)
exhibited two pastel copies after La Tour (Parrocel, Voltaire) in Saint-Quentin in 1850.
Lit.: Saint-Quentin 2012b
Jacques-Antoine-Marie LEMOINE (1751–1824), manufacturer of crayons artificiels.
Charles-François-Paul LE NORMANT DE TOURNEHEM (1684–1751), directeur général des Bâtiments du roi 1745–51.
Charles LEOFFROY DE SAINT-YVES (1717–1804), bourgeois de Paris, salon critic and collector of paintings, miniatures and prints. He was the son of the chirirguen-oculiste Étienne Léoffroy de Saint-Yves ( –1758).
Robert LEPELTIER (1913–1996), artist and restorer, author of Restauration des dessins et estampes, Fribourg, 1977. An invoice in the Archives des musées
nationaux, sér. D-Da, cabinet des dessins, D16, 1971, indicates that he worked on pastels by Russell, Vivien, La Tour, Labille-Guiard, Lundberg and éc. fr. XVIIIe. He
invented the Lepeltier box, a form of mounting applied to some pastels in the Louvre. Some photographs from his studio survive recording his work. His father, the painter
Léon Lepeltier (1877-1960), also worked as a conservator into the 1950s; he was responsible for the 1946–47 restoration of the La Tour pastels before their return to
Lugt, Marques de collections, online ed., L.3438
Charles LE PILEUR D'APLIGNY (ﬂ. 1772–1820), chemist and author; his biographical details remain elusive. He produced numerous works on subject ranging from music to dyeing and the
fabrication of beer. His Traité des couleurs materielles, Paris, 1779, described Reiffenstein's method of preparing
canvas for pastel with coatings of oil and glass powder, similar to Pellechet's process; it seems to have been used by Rotari.
Lit.: Shelley 2002, p. 11, n.37; Treatises
LEONARDO da Vinci (1452-1519).
Jean-Baptiste, dit Louis LE PAON (1738–1785), officier de cavalerie, peintre du prince de Condé, salon critic.
Le Sieur LEPRINCE (presumably the father or brother of the pastellist Mme de Laperche, q.v.) advertised in the Annonces, affiches…de l'Orléanois,
18.ix.1772, offering to fix pastels using the Loriot method at half the price.
Dictionary, artists, s.v. Laperche
Mme Julien LESÉNÉCAL, née Denise Albert (1922-1995), known as Denise Lesénécal-Albert, was a pupil at the École de dessin at Saint-Quentin in 1937, under Gabriel Girodon. She made a series of copies of La Tour pastels from Saint-Quentin, six of which were sold at Saint-Quentin, 2.vii.2016.
Henry LÉTONNÉ, picture and print frame maker, reçu maître-menuisier 9.vi.1773 (although stamped frames for paintings by Boucher and Frédou predate this),
active from 1760 until 1791. He lived on the quai d'Orléans, près du
Pont-Rouge, and then rue de l'Ile-Saint-Louis. He married a Marie-Magdeleine Dubuisson; their son Pierre, also a maître-menuisier by 1791, was married in 1811. He appeared as an ami at the tutellage conference for Claude Infroit's minor son in 1786. Stamped frames on a pastel by Desangles, Sophie Arnould; a copy of Kucharski's Louis XVII (MV 6520); and a pair of anonymes
Lit.: Salverte 1962; Harden 1998
Honoré-Antoine LEVERT (Ham, Somme, c.1710 – Paris 1785), framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 14.xii.1774, enclos Saint-Jean-de-Latran, Paris. Stamped frames on
pastels by Ducreux, Mme Poisson; Mosnier, duchesse de Laval; a/r Leprince, astronome; Éc. fr., M. & Mme Bourrée de Corberon; inconnue [J.9.6503].
Lit.: Vial 1912–22; Harden 1998; Jeffares 2018d
Pierre-Charles LEVESQUE (1736-1812), protégé of Diderot who completed the Dictionnaire des arts of Watelet (q.v.) before writing the history of Russia.
Marin-Cyprien de LIEUDÉ DE SEPMANVILLE (1717–1798), secrétaire du roi, chambre des comptes de Dôle, from Rouen,
early writer who discussed La Tour's fixing of pastels in his
1747 Réflexions nouvelles d'un amateur…. In 1757 at Verneuil he married Françoise de Courcy. He died in Evreux. His biographical details are confused in many sources
with those of his son, François-Cyprien-Antoine Lieudé de Sepmanville (1762–1817), a naval officer.
Dictionary, salons critiques, 1747
Jean-Étienne LIOTARD (1702-1789), pastellist and theorist, credited with technical innovations.
Dictionary, artists; collectors
Mme LOGHADÈS, née Léonie Tchoumakoff (Paris 1859-1938x46), copyist in pastel, known for a copy of Nattier's Mlle de Lambesc (MV 8959) and also recorded as having copied Nattier's Mme Tessin.
Alexis III LOIR (1712-1785), pastellist, who experimented with pastel on wood and on copper.
Giovan Paolo LOMAZZO (1538-1600), painter and theorist, mentions Leonardo's invention of pastel in 1584.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 136; Burns 2007, p. 4f; Dictionary, s.v. Leonardo
LOMBERQUE (ﬂ. Paris 1731), pastel maker, presumably a misspelling of Lundberg.
Dictionary, artists, Lundberg
Antoine-François LOMET (1759–1826), ingénieur des ponts et chaussées, provided a "Mèmoire sur la fabrication des crayons de sanguine" an account of Dumarets's procedure, in the Annales de chimie, xc, 1799, pp. 284–92, translated as "On the preparation of crayons used for drawing, from the paste of reddle", in the Philosophical magazine, iii, 1799, pp. 299-303.
René LONGA (1887–1968), painter and resdorer whoc worked in the Louvre pastels c.1943.
L. de LONGASTRE (c.1747-p.1806), pastellist, provided information on pastel techniques to Constant de Massoul (q.v.).
Antoine-Joseph LORIOT (1716-1782), inventor of a method of fixing pastel.
Dictionary, artists; Jeffares 2014i
Joan Gideon LOTEN (1710–1789), employee of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, governor of Zeylan; he lived in London for some years, becoming FRS 1760, FSA 1761; salon critic.
Mr LOYD (ﬂ. Boston 1771). Copley wrote from New York to his brother Henry Pelham in Boston (16.vi.1771) explaining that "I want my Crayons much", instructing him "do see Mr Loyd, and find when Smith will sail, for I shall not be able to do long without them." It is unclear if Loyd was a crayon maker.
Georg Moritz LOWITZ (1722-1774), inventor of a new green pastel.
Gustaf LUNDBERG (Stockholm 1695-1786), ?pastel maker, and inventor of a method of preparing paper for pastel.
Dictionary, artists, Lundberg
Macle, v. Roché
Pierre-Philippe MAELRONDT (1710–1794), agent of Caroline Luise in Paris, where he died at 374 rue Saint-Honoré. His wife was Marie-Anne-Thérèse Deplanche, and his heir his son-in-law Adrien-Jacques-François Brissault, lawyer. In a letter of 10.iii.1753 he wrote to Caroline Luise mentioning Perronneau and pastels bought from Moule (see Perronneau documentation).
J. MAGEE, 41 College Green, Dublin, advertised artists' materials (including "Crayons-Drops") imported from London: Dublin evening post, 1.x.1778.
Antoine MAILLET-DUCLAIRON (1721–1809), salon critic.
Carlo Cesare MALVASIA (1616–1693), scholar and art historian.
Carel van MANDER (1548–1606), Flemish painter, author of Het schilder-boeck, published in Haarlem in 1604, in which Goltzius's
use of "cryons" was discussed.
Louis MANDROT (1740–1795), négociant from Yverdon, attempted to export pastels by Helmoldt (q.v.) to London in 1793–94 but seems to have run into difficulties
in transporting them safely.
Lit.: Corinne Curat, in Lausanne 2018, p. 59f
Carlo MARATTI (1625-1713), artist and restorer, said to have used pastel to restore paintings.
Antoine de MARCENAY DE GHUY (1724-1811), engraver. Together with Peters he organised the Salons du Colisée after the dissolution of the Académie de Saint-Luc.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 156f
Pierre-Jean MARIETTE (1694-1774), collector and writer.
Abel-François Poisson, marquis de MARIGNY (1727–1781), directeur général des Bâtiments du roi 1751–73.
Jean-François MARMONTEL (1719-1798), de l'Académie française, écrivain, subject of a pastel by La Tour.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991
Basile MASSÉ (ﬂ. Paris 1744–50) made copies in ink of portraits by Rigaud and La Tour, among them the pastel of Mlle de La Boissière. He was recorded as a bourgeois de Paris, rue Neuve, paroisse Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, when the inv. p.m. of his wife, Marie-Anne Duhan, was registered in 1745.
Massoul, v. Constant
Charles-Joseph MATHON DE LA COUR (1738–1793), salon critic. The son of a mathematician from Lyon, he founded the Société philanthropique de Lyon et du bureau des nourricières, established the Journal de Lyon, and was directeur de l'Académie des sciences de Lyon, and vice président du Conseil général in 1793. He was guillotined during the Revolution.
Jean-Baptiste MAUCLERC (reçu 1757), marchand épicier, rue Quincampoix, author of Traité des couleurs et vernis, Paris, 1773.
Lit.: Catalogue géneral des marchands epiciers-grossiers-droguistes, 1765; Chatelus 1991, p. 80; Lowengard 2008
Charles-Élisabeth MAUGÉ (1737–1805), procureur au présidial de Rennes, juge au tribunal de première instance de Rennes, perhaps the subject of a portrait in oil by Perronneau
(Salon de 1765), published a letter "sur un moyen de fixer le Pastel" in the Journal oeconomique, .vii.1770, p. 324 in which he mentions
"[son] gout pour cette sorte de peinture qui a tant de graces & d'éclat".
His recipe, offered because Loriot kept his secret, involved vinegar and sugar-candy, to be applied with care and experience.
Lit.: Almanach sous verre, 1769, cited Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 149; Goncourt & Goncourt 1867; Treatises
Charles-Louis MAURISAN (1732–1773), maître sculpteur juré en charge de l’académie de Saint-Luc, rue Meslay by 1741, when he was heir to his father,
Louis Maurisan; his mothr was Madeleine Aubert. (There appear also to have been a grandfather and an uncle both also called Charles-Louis.) In 1764 his first wife, Marie-Louise de Villée, died, leaving two minor children. He was then living Grande rue du faubourg Saint-Denis. His second wife
was Brigitte Duhamel. He became entrepreneur des Bâtiments du roi, provided frames for pastels by La Tour of Louis XV, the dauphin and queen in 1748 (only that of the queen could
correspond with the work in the Louvre) and of the dauphine in 1749.
Lit.: Pons 1987; Rambaud
Tobias MAYER (1723-1762), inventor of wax crayons.
Christian von MECHEL (1737-1817), engraver and pupil of Wille; he engraved La Tour's portrait of Voltaire. In 1776 he kept a printshop in
Basel which was seen by Bernoulli, who reprints the list provided by Mechel, including a group of pastels by Boucher:
"Neuf têtes de femmes, en pastel, sous verre, par Mr. Boucher premier peintre du Roi de France. H. 1 p. 3 p. L. 1 pier. Cette petite suite choisie & variée
entre les pastels connus de cette celebre main, peut s'appeller le cabinet des beautés. Ce sont tous des portraits d'après nature, & après les plus beaux
modeles qui brilloient à Paris; il y a entr'autres le portrait de Mad. de Pompadour; le pastel en est fixe."
Lit.: Bernouolli 1777, ii, p. 243
Félix-Alexandre MENNECHET (1811–1878), juge de paix, administrateur et Secrétaire perpétual of the École gratuite de dessin at Saint-Quentin; brother of the collector
Alphonse Mennechet de Barival (q.v.). He seems to have been responsible for the 1849 inventory of the La Tour pastels at the École, and was the author
of the catalogue of the La Tour pastels there, published anonymously in 1856 and reissued with his name in 1866. The paraph Mt which appears on many of the préparations
must be his.
Méraud, v. s.v. Roché
Mrs Philip MERCIER, née Dorothy Clapham (a.1710–1782), widow of the painter Philippe Mercier (v. artists), of Windmill Street: her trade card in the V&A mentions the "silk paper" for drawing in pastel introduced by John Stackhouse Styles (q.v.), as well as "abortive vellum" for drawing.
Georges MERCIER (1885–1939), 3 rue Saint-Benoît, Paris 3e: early 20th century framemaker and luxury book-binder; son of the celebrated bookbinder Émile Mercier. Emile Maylander (1867–1959), gilder to the firm, set up with Mercier fils. Label on verso of copy of Perronneau, Mme Duval d'Espreménil, with an oval frame and elaborate ribbon bow offers "Rentoilages, restauration de tableaux/fabrique de cadres, encadrements/…pastels & miniatures…dorure chimique/photographie, gravure".
Denis MÉSARD, Mesard, Mezard, Messard ou Meszard (ﬂ. 1714–51), marchand épicier et maître peintre, "A la signe de la Cornemuze", rue Darnétal (later known as Greneta): artists' colourman, picture dealer and printseller. He was married to a Marguerite-Jacqueline Blondel ( –1748) (AN MC/lxxxvii/847). Their son was Jean Mésard ( –1762), maître peintre. At the transfer of the business to Jean, an inventory was taken of the stock (AN MC/LXXXVII/1008, 21.viii.1751). While it is clear that they did not specialise in pastel, there were six "boetes a pastel asortie" valued at 8 livres each, and "trois cent crayons de pastel a deux sols chaque", 30 livres in total. In L'Avant-Coureur for 31.x.1763 (p. 701), "la veuve Mesard, marchande de couleurs pour la miniature & le génie, rue Grenata, à la Renommée de la cornemuse d'outre-mer" offered among other things "des pastels de toutes couleurs." She was recorded as a member of the Académie de Saint-Luc in 1764 (Guiffrey 1915). An application by her half-brother, the lawyer Nicolas Damien de Blancmur (AN Y5202, 21.vi.1785) identifies her as Françoise-Henriette Mosnier ( –1785). After Mésard's death she married Jean-Eustache Granger Dorville, contrôleur des rentes assignées sur les États de Bretagne, and presumably gave up business. After Granger Dorville's death (1779), she inherited property in Saint-Domingue of which the war prevented her taking possession (dossier IREL).
Louis-François METRA [Métra, Mettra] (1738–1804), journalist, critic, banker and correspondent of Friedrich der Große; publisher of the Correspondance littéraire.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991
Claude-Alexandre MEUNIER ( –1798), "à la mine de plomb et flotte d'Angleterre", quai de l'Horloge, supplier of mathematical instruments, stationery etc.
Both were married to daughters another supplier, Etienne Chenié. The inv. p.m. carried out
by Joseph-Ignace Huber (q.v.) included a number of boxes of pastel:
Item Vingt quatres Boites de Pastel assorties prise Cent quatre Vingt Huit francs
Item Vingt Boites de Pastel monée en bois prisé Trois cent livres
Item huit Etuits de pastel montée en bois a six francs en somme de quarante huit francs
Pierre MEUNIER (1735–p.1783), framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 8.vii.1767, rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, later rue de la Roquette,
Paris. Meunier and a Marie-Anne Oudry jointly borrowed 462 livres in 1771 (AN).
Lit.: Harden 1998
Mme MEUNIER, a nineteenth century pastel copyist known for one work in Versailles (MV 6534).
François MEYER (1737-1798), a clockmaker born in Morat, Switzerland; in Paris from 1758; maître horloger 1773. His daughter Sophie married the painter Jean-Baptiste Regnault (q.v.) in Paris in 1786; among the witnesses were Balthazar-George Sage and Philippe Mazzei. Meyer advertised Stoupan's pastels in L'Avant-Coureur, 12.vii.1773, p. 435f: "Meyer, Horloger aux Quinze-Vingts, tient des assortimens de Pastels Suisses du Sr Stoupan de Lauzanne. On trouve aussi chez lui des crayons détachés desdits Pastels afin de pouvoir assortir les couleurs des personnes qui ont acheté ci-devant de ces Pastels."
Christian MICHEL, pipemaker in Ruhl, supplied pastels of a new kind, which could be mixed with water and applied to supports prepared
with oil paint. A box of 36 sticks cost one ducat.
Lit.: Busch 1820, p. 101f, citing Journal für Fabrik, .XI.1797, p. 395
Jean-Baptiste MICHOD ( –1798), horloger, from Bern, moved to Vevey, not far from Lausanne, in 1763. His son or younger brother, François Michod (c.1750–1796), nephew of
Bernard Stoupan (q.v.), established a pastel supply in Vevay by 1779 (his trade card offered "Pastels fins. Grand assortiment pour Portraits chez François Michod, Fils Cadet, Eléve et successeur de son oncle Stoupan".
Pastels by Jean-Bapiste Michod were mentioned in a 1784 advertisement in Frankfurt by Johann Christian Kaller (q.v.).
Lit.: Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 1779, p. 564; Lausanne 2018
Nicholas MIDDLETON ( -1824), stationer and pencil maker, trading in the Strand from the mid-18th century. Although an early 19th century trade card refers to
"crayons" these were "de plomb noir" and probably not pastel.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Pierre-François MILLET, framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 1767, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998
Claude-Louis-Octave, vicomte de MILLEVILLE (1751-p.1796), youngest son of a financier and munitions supplier, écuyer de main du
comte d'Artois 1775-81 (despite fighting a duel with the marquis de Louvois), capitaine au régiment Boufflers-Dragons, and a freemason, living in Versailles, presented his recipe for varnish
capable of fixing pastels to the Académie royale, who were "sensible au
zèle de M. le Vicomte de Milleville d'employer ses loisirs à la conservation des productions des Arts", and to d'Angivillers. He was asked
to return with specimens on 5.xi.1785, but sent his apologies. In 1792 he was colonel en second of the Royalist infanterie illyrienne corps in Koblenz.
Lit.: Procès-Verbaux, 29.x.1785; "Lettre de le vicomte de Milleville à le comte d'Artois sur la decouverte d'une vernis pour le pastel," 5.xii.1785, AN O/1/1918 476; Goncourt & Goncourt 1867; Mazas 1861
Jean-Baptiste MILLIET (1745–1774), philologue à la Bibliothèque du roi, author of a Lettre sur la peinture en pastel, 1775.
William MITFORD (1699-1777), of Pitshill, near Petworth, receiver general for Sussex, patron, discoverer of John Keyse Sherwin; active in the Society of Arts and member of the committee that evaluated the pastels of Charles Pache (q.v.) in 1772.
John MOFFAT ( –1777), of Boston, nephew of John Smibert, artists' supplier.
Lit.: Shelley 2002b
Montigny, v. Thibault de Montigny
Jean-Barthélemy MOREAU ( –1779), rue Saint-Denis, marchand-épicier (maître 1755), bourgeois de Paris, marchand de couleurs.
Lit.: Catalogue général des marchands epiciers-grossiers-droguistes, 1765; Almanach dauphin, 1776, cited Haroche-Bouzinac 2011, p.27; Journal de Paris, 5.iii.1779, p. 256
Louis-Jean-Marie MOREL D'ARLEUX (1755–1827), conservateur des dessins au Louvre.
Henry Robert MORLAND (1716-1797).
Morvau, v. Guyton
Barthélemy-François MOUFLE D'ANGERVILLE (1728–1795), avocat, salon critic. He was the son of a trésorier général des guerres. He wrote for the Mémoires secrets 1779–87, and was imprisoned in the Bastille several times.
Yves MOUGEOT, modern copyist of several La Tour pastels.
Louis MOULLÉ or Moule (1719–1797), pastel manufacturer. Lot 502 in Charles Coypel's posthumous sale included "Sept Tiroirs remplis de Pastels
de meilleurs Fabriques; telles que celles de Moule, Charmeton & autres." Moule or Moulle is also mentioned in the correspondance of Caroline Luise von Baden
(letter of Pierre-Philippe Maelrondt from Paris, 10.iii.1753: v. Perronneau, documents): he
called on Perronneau and Maelrondt, and sold a box of 202 assorted pastel crayons
for 84 livres. Louis Moullé, marchand épicier, 43 rue Saint-Honoré, the son of Jean-Louis Moullé and
Catherine Hut, was born in Linas (Essonne), but settled in Paris in 1743. He married a Madeleine-Geneviève Castel at Saint-Sulpice on 16.ii.1745;
she was the daughter of Jacques Castel, marchand épicier, and Catherine Pille. His son, Nicolas-Marie (reçu 1759), and much younger brother
Jean-Louis Moullé (1742–1813), continued the business. His death was witnessed by his son-in-law,
Claude-André Lemoine (1749–1812), épicier, droguiste, rue des Lombards, who maried Suzanne-Victoire-Sophie Moullé ( –1824) in 1778.
It is unlikely that the pastel maker was connected with Étienne Moulle (1641–1702), conseiller secrétaire du roi, whose inv. p.m. (AN CXII/426b, 28.iv.1702) contained
a very large number of paintings (but no pastels); he sold a Poussin to the crown in 1685. In the Salon de 1704, Vivien exhibited a lost pastel of a Mlle Moule.
Johann Heinrich MÜNTZ (1727-1798), Swiss painter and writer, interested in encaustic, which he thought could be used to fix pastels.
An English translation of his Encaustic, or, Count Caylus's method of painting in the manner of the ancients: to which is added a sure and
easy method for fixing of crayons appeared in 1760.
Lit.: Burns 2007
André NADAUX (1726–1800), pastel maker.
G. & I. NEWMAN, Little Chelsea, later at Bridge Row, Ranelagh, Chelsea c.1786 (apparently unconnected with James Newman). Colour makers; in 1786 their trade card advertised "crayon pencils equal to the Swiss".
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
James NEWMAN, Gerrard Street, London 1784-1801. Leading supplier of artists' materials, including "fine soft crayons" (Times, 5.v.1787).
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
NIODOT fils, "Au Griffon d’Or", 43 Cloître St Germain l’Auxerrois, à Paris. According to his trade card, "NIODOT fils, M[archan]d
papetier, tient le Dépôt des véritables Crayons d’Isabey de toutes les qualités, Papiers vélin anglois superfin, cartons tendus et apprêtés de
toutes grandeurs pour dessiner à sa manière, Idem sur chassis et Tiradors &c.... Cartons encadrés et dorés pour dessiner et laver, colle les
Dessin, Gouaches, Pastels de toutes façons, tient en général tout ce qui est relatif à la Papeterie." He appears in earlier sources (Almanach des six corps, 1769)
as "Nodot", and in 1788 at the sign Au Chant de l'Alouette, place du Vieux-Louvre, 21; another label records "Niodot jeune, rue
Richelieu, no. 70". Several documents in the Minutier central provide the names of Claude-Nicolas Niodot ( –1805), marchand papetier, 268 rue de la Loi;
and probably his brother Sébastien-Claude Niodot ( –1811), 165 rue Saint-Honoré. Niodot père may have been the marchand mercier Jean-Baptiste Niodot (1710–?1786).
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913; Lugt L.1944a; Lettre de la miniature, 8.ix.2011, p. 2
Mme François NIVELON, née Anne Féret (1711–1786), painter and copyist of a number of la Tour pastels, some signed "Anne Baptiste Nivelon".
Lit.: Jeffares 2020a
Nodot, v. Nodiot
Edward NORGATE (1581-1650), artist, musician and author of Miniatura or the art of limning, 1627–28, revised 1648-50 correcting
the confused account of extracting
ultramarine under the heading "The Pastil". The treatise provided directions "to make Crayons...of ordinary Colours of all mixtures".
Lit.: modern eds. of 1919, 1997; Burns 2007; Treatises
Frank NOWLAN (c.1835-1919), London and Dublin, restorer. Repaired and copied G. Romney, William Cowper, in 1905; restored Humphry, Stanhope, for NPG in 1904 (4 gns).
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk
ORAN, maître vitrier à Paris, author of a Livre des dessins de vitres... (INHA MS23). A large family of vitriers of this name existed.
Charles Henry PACHE (1747- ), 2 Oxendon Street, near Coventry Street, London 1774. Pastel maker; son of Jacob Samuel Pache and nephew of Lewis Pache (q.v., to whom he owed money at the time
of Lewis's will in 1773). He married Marie-Louise Doutremer at
St James's, Piccadilly, on 9.xii.1775, describing himself in the allegation as "Charles Pache of Noel Street... Crayons Maker" and in the bond as 28 years old. The witnesses were
Leopold Doutremer and David Galliard (q.v.; Pache in turn attended Galliard's wedding).
In 1772 Pache wrote to the Society of Arts, sending four boxes of his crayons for their approval. Pache presented these to the committee in person on
13.xi.1772. Advice was sought from "the most eminent artists" in the field of pastel: Liotard issued a certificate that they were as good as
Stoupan's, the browns even more beautiful; Russell and Milbourne concurred. Some thought Moreland's better. Bonhote
(q.v.) advertised Pache's pastels, citing him as a former partner of Stoupan (q.v.) at Lausanne, noting that Pache had obtained a premium from
the Society of Arts and Sciences (London evening post, 8.iv.1773). Soon after Pache advertised (London evening post, 24.v.1774)
that he had set up in business on his own, mentioning that he had received a Bounty from the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures
and Commerce, for establishing a manufacture of crayons in England. This was the amount of twenty guineas for preparing crayons, and "establishing a
manufactory thereof in England." (H. T. Wood's 1913 History of the RSA erroneously reports the recipient as Joseph Pache.)
Lit.: "Regarding crayons invented by Mr Pache", 13, 27.xi., 4.xii.1772, [R]SA Minutes of the Committee on Polite Arts, [R]SA Minutes of Various Premium Committees 1772-73 [R]SA PR.GE/112/12/14; British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk; Lowengard 2008
Lewis PACHE ( –1773), a Huguenot of Swiss extraction (with connections in Morges), was naturalized in 1755. On 2.vi.1754 (at St John the Evangelist, Great Stanmore)
he married a widow, Marie Robelou, whose first husband may have been Joseph Robeleu or Robelou of St Ann's, Westminster, no doubt from the Spitalfields
family of Huguenot silkweavers (her brother lived in Geneva). Pache traded (as Pache & Davis 1758–63, Lewis Pache & Co c.1765) at Hayes's Court, Soho, a trade card
shows "L. Pache, successor to Mr. Roubelou, and J. Davis, from Mr. Wilmot, the corner of Norfolk Street, ... hosiers, hatters, and glovers,
in Hay's Court, near Newport-Market, London, sell all sorts of silk, cotton, thread &c." (William Wilmot was a prominent hosier in the Strand.) The firm
supplied imported Swiss fabrics as well as artists' materials, including "The noted Swiss Crayons called Pastels Assortie, the Box being a compleat Assortment of Shades and Colours"
(Public advertiser, 20.vi.1758); on 14.ii.1760 and 30.iv.1760, they were described as made by Stoupan (q.v.) and recommended by "that famous
Painter Liotard" ("Liosard" at the earlier date). The firm was succeeded by John James Bonhote (q.v.).
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk; parish records; CERL Thesaurus
Mammès-Claude PAHIN DE LA BLANCHERIE (Langres 29.xii.1751 - London 25.vi.1811), journalist, art critic, founder of the Salon de la Correspondance which exhibited numerous pastels
during its existence between 1779 and 1787, author of the Nouvelles de la république des lettres et des arts; subject of pastels by Ducreux and Lenoir.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, pp. 146ff; Dena Goodman, The Republic of Letters, Ithaca, 1994; Auricchio 2002; Guichard 2004
PAILLARD, Paris, suppliers of pastels from 1788. Jacques-Michel Paillard, 15 rue des Francs-Bourgeois au Marais, Paris, in 1850,
took over the business originally started by "P. C. Lambertye", perhaps in 1788, at 5, rue d'Orléans au Marais (v. s.n. Constant) and continued
after 1822 by his pupil Joseph Panier, specialising in watercolour
in dry cakes. Paillard defended his rights to the Lambertye and Panier trademarks
in an action in 1858 against Albert Allmayer and Jacob Schloss who had sold colours in breach of his trademark.
Lit.: Kosek 1998
Alexandre-Joseph PAILLET (1743-1814): Paris art dealer, expert and auctioneer.
Anthony PASQUIN, the pseudonym of John Williams (1758–c.1821), journalist and art critic. His antipathy to pastel is neatly summarised in his
note on Russell (Pasquin 1796a): "To investigate the merits of miniature and crayon painters, is scarcely a toil worthy the pen of a biographer.
There is no province of the polite arts so thoroughly gulling and imposing as crayon painting; it captivates the vulgar eye, by a smoothness and
gaudiness which should render it disgusting; and even a bad artist may pass muster in this pursuit, who would be scouted in any other. It
requires a great portion of skill not to make the tints too garish for nature; and that species of knowledge no man possessed in so eminent a
degree as Mr Coates, and even he was not strictly correct on this essential point."
Lit.: Cullen 2000
Abel PATOUX (1846–1908), of Saint-Quentin, lawyer, collector and writer about La Tour.
Patrouillard, v. Degrave
Joseph PAULMIER, de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, marchand-épicier 1731, rue de Baune; marchand de couleur, rue Saint-Denis, vis-a-vis le Sépulcre. His notices read
"Paulmier, peintre, vend pastelle, couleurs et vernis".
Lit.:Catalogue géneral des marchands epiciers-grossiers-droguistes, 1765; Guiffrey 1915, p. 77
John PAYNE, of 2 Castle Street, Holborn, added "instructions for painting in wax-crayons" to the 3rd (1800) edition of his The Art of painting in miniature, on ivory.
Henry PEACHAM (1578–c.1644), teacher, illustrator and author. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge and became travelling tutor to the sons of the Earl
of Arundel. His treatise on drawing and watercolour, Art of drawing, was published in
1606, expanded as Graphice, 1612 (with a dedication to Sir Edmund Ashfield) and reissued the same year as the Gentlemans exercise; there
were further versions in 1634 and 1661. It contains a brief reference to making "pastils". Peacham's Compleat Gentleman of 1634 directs readers to
the Gentlemans exercise, but lists among materials for drawing "dry pencils made of what colour you please by grinding it with strong wort, and then
rowling it up pencill-wise, and so let it dry".
Peele, v. s.n. Boyle
Jean-Antoine PELLECHET (Vercel 1721 - Fribourg 1758), inventor of a type of oil pastel.
Claude PÉPIN (ﬂ. – Paris 13.i.1782), framemaker, reçu maître-menuisier 25.i.1775, rue de Lappe, Paris. In 1766 he married Marie-Françoise
Boudin ( –1783). His workshop specialised in de luxe sculpted giltwood frames. Stamped frame on Labille-Guiard's morceau de reception, Pajou (1782: presumably delivered before the
framemaker's death); also on 1776 Frédou pnt. a/r Roslin, Louis le dauphin and on Berjon, still-life (probably not original as the pastel is early 19th century). Two sons,
born 1766, 1777, are recorded, but do not seem to have been menuisiers.
Lit.: Salvert 1962; Harden 1998
Alexis-Nicolas PÉRIGNON (1785-1864), commissaire expert des Musées royaux: provided reports on a number of pastels by La Tour offered to the Louvre.
Aimée-Adrienne Garet, dit PERLET (Paris 1795–1862), peintre sur procelaine, pupil of Jacquotot, exhibiting at the Salon 1824–45; she was commissioned in 1843 by baron Pichon to copy La Tour's Mme de Pompadour in miniature.
Dom Antoine-Joseph PERNETY (1716-1796), Benedictine monk, librarian to Friedrich der Große, founder of the Société des illuminés d'Avignon with count Grabianka, explorer, hermetic, author. He described the manufacture of pastel sticks in his Dictionnaire portatif de peinture, sculpture et gravure, 1757, pp. 444f, and also included a section in the preface (pp. cxxviff), "De la peinture en pastel", which he described as "une espece de dessein estompé". Pernety claims to have seen La Tour fix his pastels between two sheets of glass, acknowledging however the greater convenience and popularity of the method designed by M. Lauriot [Loriot].
Jean PERRÉAL [Jehan de Paris] (c.1455-1530), source of Leonardo's pastel recipe.
Bernard PERROT or Bernardo Perrotto (1640–1709), Italian glassmaker, member of a family of glassmakers from Altare which
settled in France, establishing the Manufacture royale des glaces in 1647. In 1662 he set up on his own Verrerie royale in Orléans, inventing
a new process for casting glass for which he was granted patents in 1668 and 1672. In 1688 he discovered the process of
making molten glass flow onto smooth iron tables where it was rolled and cooled; a necessary process before large scale pastels could be made.
Lit.: Elphège Frémy, Histoire de la manufacture royale des glaces de France au XVIIe et au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1909; Jean Hartwig, Les Cahiers du verre, no. 8, 2014
Johann Anton de PETERS (1725-1795), pastellist, collector and exhibition organiser.
Dictionary, artists; collectors
Louis PETIT DE BACHAUMONT (1690-1771), amateur and critic.
"Le sieur PEYRONNET, marchand Doreur & Miroitier, à Toulouse, logé rue Saint-Rome, près la Place Royal, tient un Magasin considérable de Plume & de Duvet. … Le Sieur Peyronnet tient le seul verre de Boheme, assorti de toute grandeur. Ce Verre imite la glace autant par sa blancheur, sa candeur que son épaisseur. Il est propre pour toute sorte de Voitures, Chaise à porteur, Croisees, Portraits au pastel & Estampes. Si dans le moment il n'était pas pourvu des mesures, à cause de la varieté dans les grandeurs des vitrages, il ne demande qu'un délai de deux mois pour les faire venir de la Verrerie, au gré des acheteurs, qui les auront au plus juste prix." Affiches, annonces &c. de Toulouse, 10.vii.1782. He was still at that address in 1791 according to an advertisement in the Journal de la Haute-Garonne. He may have been the Jean-Baptiste Peyronnet at that address, variously described as a chapelier and musicien, whose wife Marie-Anne Latreille (aged 38 in 1761; they married in 1739) was cited as a witness in the Calas case.
August Ludewig PFANNENSCHMID (ﬂ. 1767–a.1798), colourman in Hannover, late 18th century. He is first recorded in 1767, making black and
red sealing-wax. He travelled widely, Rome, Naples, Paris, Moscow etc.
He invented a Farbentriangel, containing 64 discs, in a treatise
Versuch einer Anleitung zum Mischen aller Farben... of 1781.
He wrote about his selection of pastels in Deutsches Museum, XXV, 1785, p. ii,
"ich jetzt auch gute Pastellfarben verfertige, davon das Sortement von 160 verschiedenen Farben den 4 Rthlr., und von 80 Farben 2 Rthlr. kostet.
Schliesslich wünsche recht sehr, dass sich doch der namenlose Herr Strasburger eben so ehrlich und offenherig nennen möge, als ich mich..."
His widow continued to offer the assortment of 160 Pastellfarben according to a reference in in the Journal des Luxus und der Moden in 1798.
Lit.: Ludwig Hoerner, Agenten, Bader und Copisten, 1995, p. 131; Lowengard 2008; G. F. Wehrs, Vom Papier..., Halle, 1789, p. 604
Michel Chipault, dit PHLIPAULT [Phelippeaux etc.] ( -1778), marchand bonnetier (from a.1731) who was concierge de l'Académie royale de
peinture, Paris 1757-78. He was married to a Louise-Madeleine Frontier (1705–1785) before 1740, and was succeeded on his death by his son
Pierre-Alexandre Phlipault, whose inv. p.m. was made 30.xi.1824. A daughter, Marie-Julie (1741–1780), married the son of Jacques Neilson (q.v.) in 1779. Phlipault supplied pastels from
Lausanne (presumably by Stoupan, q.v.) for 52 livres for two
boxes containing a complete range.
Lit.: Procès-verbaux; Ratouis de Limay 1907, p. 157, citing letter of 27.v.1763 from Nicolas-Charles [or his son Jacques-Augustin] de Silvestre to Aignan-Thomas Desfriches (q.v.); also cited Arnoult 2014, p. 110; notoriété, 22.vii.1785, AN mc/liii/603
J. B. PICTARIUS, pseudonym for the author of De geheime illumineer-konst, 1747, which has a section on "Schilderen met Pastel" (pp. 96–110), which appears to draw from English sources.
Matthieu-François PIDANSAT DE MAIROBERT (1727–1779), censeur royal, secrétaire des commandements du duc de Chartres, salon critic.
Antoine-François de Santi-Pieri, dit PIERI (Livorno 1783 – p.1819), peintre doreur du roi, rue Fromenteau 1, Paris: frame label on pastel by Pougin de Saint-Aubin, 1746. He is listed in the catalogue of the exhibition L'Industrie française held at the Louvre in 1819. His full name appears in the act of naturalization, Saint-Cloud, 25.vi.1817.
Sig.r PIETRO (ﬂ. Venice 1725): An entry in Rosalba Carriera's diary for 28.iii.1725 records a payment of 2 zecchini and 2 silver ducats "per colori e vernice".
Roger de PILES (1635-1709), art critic and connoisseur, conseiller honoraire de l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture; famous for his defence of colour against drawing. He described pastel manufacture. His Premiers Elémens de la peinture pratique, first printed in 1684 (with engravings by Jean-Baptiste Corneille, sometimes listed as a co-author), and includes a section "De la peinture au pastel". He also recommended buying ready made pastels from several suppliers in Paris.
Mrs Matthew PILKINGTON, née Laetitia van Lewen (c.1709–1750), the divorced wife of an Irish clergyman, set up a print shop in St
James's, London, c.1740 but was arrested for debt. Amongst her stock were pastel cut-outs by Nathaniel Bermingham (q.v.). Her
Memoirs are a useful source of gossip.
Lit.: Oxford DNB
Jean-Claude PINGERON (Lyon 1730 – Versailles 1795), capitaine d'artillerie et ingénieur an service de la Pologne, attaché au bureau des plans des bâtiments du roi. He travelled to Italy and the Levant, and translated works in various fields. Among his journalism was a letter on the state of the arts in England, summarised in the Journal d'agriculture in 1768.
Édouard PINGRET (1785–1875), peintre, conservateur of the musée de Saint-Quentin, from 1822 to 1829.
Lit.: Séverin 1993; Saint-Quentin 2012b
Raphaël-Maurice-Quentin POINT (1875–1953), painter and pastellist, named after La Tour whom he is said to have admired and may have copied. His portrait of his teacher, Jules Degrave (q.v.), is in the musée Antoine-Lécuyer.
Arthur POND (1701-1758), pastellist and supplier of copies, prints etc.
James POOLE (ﬂ. 1764-1801), 163 High Holborn, London. Artists' supplier; he advertised Swiss crayons in 1786. He stocked
Swiss crayons made by Mr Hudson (q.v.). Poole was a major supplier of artists' canvases, obtaining the
freedom of the Weavers' Company in 1764. Following the new Linen Act of 1784, artists' canvases were brought into the charge for linen duty, and
were stamped accordingly as British Linen; stencilled numbers included the year in four digits, running vertically at the right edge. Poole's stamps appear on
numerous oil paintings and at least one pastel.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Hans POSSE (1879–1942), director of the Dresden Gemäldegalerie from 1910; author of catalogues of the collection.
Lit.: Henning 2009, pp. 285ff
"J. en P. POSTHUMUS, J. A. Jourdany, L. J. Lamaison en F. G. Feyh, Makelaars, te Amsterdam, voor 't Huis op de Heerenragt over de Warmoesgragt" advertised in the Amsterdamse courant, 22.iv.1794, a wide range of furniture etc., including "mede konstige Schilderyen en Fantaisie-Pourtraitten in Pastel."
Jacques-Joseph POUILLARD ( –1791), marchand mercier, quai de l'Horloge, à l'enseigne de la Mine de PLomb 1770–91. He was recorded as a marchand de crayons under the mistranscribed name of Souillard in several sources. He was the son of Gabriel Pouillard and de Geneviève Hocquigny, and in 1752 he married Thérèse Chenié. Two of their daughters married the suppliers Claude-Alexandre Meunier and Joseph-Ignace Huber, qq.v., who carried on the business.
Edward POWELL (ﬂ. London 1724-44), colourman, St Martin-in-the-Fields, father of Edward (1727–?1813) and John (1730– ), who seem to have continued the business. The father presumably was the Powell in Pond's accounts in 1734, while J. Powell was presumably the author of a letter to Copley of 18.x.1765, supplying a box of "craons" for 15s. which Powell hoped "will Turn out agreeable as I Took the pains To Go To The maker".
Mr POWER, of East Lane, Maidstone, drawing teacher, also sold drawing materials, including "complete sets of Crayons in boxes" (Kentish gazette, 30.viii.1776).
Prange, v. Sulzer
Maison L. PREVOST, said to have been founded in 1773, offering "couleurs fines et matériel d'artistes pour la peinture à l'huile, l'aquarelle, le pastel et le dessin", much later (1887) taken over by Gustave Sennelier.
Roch-Henri PRÉVOST DE SAINT-LUCIEN (1730-1808), v. s.v. Watin
Federico QUERCIA (1839-1927), pasticheur of XVIIIe pastels.
Emile QUEUIN (ﬂ. 1865–73), pupil of Deligne (q.v.) at the École impériale gratuite de dessin à Saint-Quentin in 1865; in 1873 he received several prizes at the school. He was named by Fleury (1908) among the copyists of La Tour.
Racknitz, v. Sulzer
Jean-Baptiste RADET (1752-1830), littérateur, vaudevilliste and salon critic.
Paul-Marie RATOUIS DE LIMAY (1881-1963), historien de l'art, auteur des ouvrages sur le pastel XVIIIe.
Étienne RAVAULT (1755–1820), marchand de crayons; 889 rue de la Loi, au Magasin de Crayons, entre la fontaine et
la rue des Boucheries (1803); 29 rue de Richelieu (1809–20). An inv. p.m. was prepared at the request of his widow, Nicole-Félicité Morcrette, a lacemaker
whom he married in Versailles in 1785. (Her name appears as Elisabeth Charlotte in the inv.) An invoice from 1819 notes "Il fabrique aussi le Pastl
par de nouveaux procédés."
Lit.: Landon 1803; Almanach du commerce de Paris, 1809
William REEVES (?1739-1803), and his brother Thomas Reeves (1736-1799). Leading artists' suppliers in London from 1766, in partnership
at the Blue Coat Boy, 2 Well Yard, Little Britain, West Smithfield 1780-82, 80 Holborn Bridge 1782-83, and subsequently independent, Thomas
continuing at Holborn Bridge while William Reeves traded from the Strand. Trade cards and advertisements (e.g. Morning herald, 24.x.1782;
Daily universal register, 2.v.1785)
mention fine Swiss crayons and English crayons, as well as "Double & Single Setts of Crayons, in all the Different Shades equal to the Italian".
Nevertheless, according to advertisements in the Times on 1.xi.1792 and a number of later dates,
T. Reeves & Son "have just imported a large quantity of Italian crayons, very fine;
complete sets of English crayons" were also supplied. By 1797 the heading of the advertisements had changed to Swiss Crayons, Reeves having
"lately imported a quantity of exceeding fine Swiss Crayons in setts." However, in the Star on 4.ii.1796, William Reeves, by then trading as
Reeves & Inwood, offered "English Crayons, which, for beauty of colour,
as well as mellowness of texture, are superior to any other's manufactory."
Lit.: Kosek 1998; British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
James (or Jacques) REGNIER (?1692-1752), succeeded by his niece Celeste Regnier (ﬂ. 1753-72),
who married the sculptor Louis-François Roubiliac in 1756 (Roubiliac had three previous wives; this marriage was reported in the Gazetteer for 24.xi.1756, although
Roubiliac's will refers to her only as the mother of his unborn child).
Printsellers, at the Golden Ball, Newport St, Long Acre, London.
Advertised (Daily courant, 30.xi.1728, 3.ii.1729; Universal spectator, 21.iii.1730 etc.; Public advertiser, 1.viii.1754 etc.)
"all Sorts of the finest Water-Colours, Dry Crayons, or Pastels, Hair and Black Lead
Pencils, Red, Black and White Chaulk and Paper for Drawings". Between 1753 and 1758 "Miss" or "Mrs" Celeste Regnier appeared as a contributor to the Westminster Hospital. She
was in the Westminster rates books until Roubiliac's death in 1762 under her maiden name, and
as Celeste Roubiliac until 1770. In 1767 she married a Benjamin Taylor of Bankside, Southwark; he moved to Great Newport Street, but was listed as a bankrupt in 1772.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Johann Jakob REHBACH (ﬂ. 1803–45), from Vienna, settled in Regensburg in 1803 and began manufacturing pencils in 1821. He retired in 1845 and was succeeded by his sons Johann Christoph and Johann Michael Carl. The firm exhibited pastels and ordinary crayons at the Exposition de 1867; they were exported to France and England. The manufacture of crayons in Bavaria was widespread, resulting from high quality of the naturally occurring seams of graphite.
Johann Friedrich REIFENSTEIN (1719-1793), inventor of fixing method.
Frédéric REISET (1815–1891), chef du cabinet des dessins au Louvre 1850.
Pierre RÉMY (1715-1797), Paris art expert.
Antoine RENOU (1731-1806), secrétaire à l'Académie de peinture, published the Secret pour fixer le pastel, a description of the Loriot process, in 1780.
Jean-Baptiste RÉVEILLON (1725–1811), Manufacture royale de papiers peints, Paris, faubourg Saint-Antoine. "Il a même formé un laboratoire chymique où se préparent les carmins, les pastels les laques de diverses couleurs" (Journal de Paris, 4.x.1785, pp. 1143). His workers rebelled in 1789. A document from 22.i.1756 (AN Y5327) shows that Réveillon, a marchand mercier, was married to Marie-Anne Maroy, daughter and heir of François Maroy, a marchand papetier.
Robert RICHARD (1921–2015), artist, of Saint-Quentin. He assisted Léon Lepeltier in the 1946 conservation campaign for the pastels at Saint-Quentin, and made a pastel copy of La Tour's abbé Huber.
Lit.: Coural & al. 2008, fig. 4
Dorothy RICHARDSON (1748-1819), granddaughter of the physician, botanist and antiquary Richard Richardson, left five volumes of travel writing now in the John
Rylands Library, as well as an annotated copy of the New Bath guide of 1770 recording her visits to the studios of Gainsborough and Hoare (q.v.); the latter
provided an unprecedented level of detail on the works displayed.
Lit.: Belsey 1987; Marcia Pointon, Strategies for showing: women, possession, and representation in English visual culture, 1665-1800, Oxford, 1997, pp. 89-130
George RILEY (1743-1829), Queen St, Mayfair, London 1770, Stone's Head, Curzon St, Mayfair 1772-81, St Paul's Churchyard
1781, Newgate Street 1783, Ludgate Street 1783-95, 3 Creed Lane, 1794-98; Old Bailey 1798-; stationer and crayon pencil supplier.
In The World (5.iv.1788), Riley advertised "New Invented Coloured Crayon Pencils of elegant shades, put in fine Cedar, to use
as a Black Lead pencil, price only £1 7s. the complete set, or 9d. single prepared and sold by G. Riley, sole Patentee"; these crayon
pencils were made to the patent of the late Thomas Beckwith (q.v.). Riley described these in A concise treatise on the
elementary principles of flower-painting and drawing in water-colour... , 1807. Advertisements appeared, such as his letter to the
Newcastle courant, 25.x.1788 from 33 Ludgate Street, enclosing an endorsement from the Edinburgh artist George Walker.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Archibald ROBERTSON (ﬂ. 1765; -1804), Savile Row Passage, adjoining Squib's Auction Room, Conduit Street, 1781; 15 Charles Street, St James's
Square 1782-96. Engraver and publisher, landscape painter and drawing master. His trade card (British Museum) from c.1780 included the "best Swiss-Crayons".
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Jean-Baptiste-Claude ROBIN (1734-1818), peintre de l'académie; censeur royal de l'Académie des Beaux-Arts; salon critic; pupil of Doyen and possibly Perronneau, whose widow he married in 1784, having been godfather to one of her sons.
Henri ROCHÉ (1837–1925), biologist and chemist, established La Maison du pastel in Paris c.1875, taking over the business run
by Séraphin Macle (1803–1870). According to Roché literature the firm was said to have been originally established in 1720 at Versailles; it moved to the rue Saint-Honoré
in Paris c.1760, and, from 1766 to 1912, was based at 4 rue du Grenier-Saint-Lazare. Macle, a marchand and fabricant de couleurs, seems to have been best known as a
supplier of watercolours, in partnership first with François-Joseph Lonchamps or Lonchampt (Lonchamps, Macle & Cie, rue Saint-Denis, was formed in 1839 but
dissolved a year later; a silent partner was Louis-Adolphe Bourniche) and then with Méraux (at 4 rue du Grenier-Saint-Lazare, by 1855); an 1851 document has
Macle already at that address. The firm claims to have supplied La Tour, Perronneau, Chardin and Carriera, but details of the 18th century origins
Lit.: Monnier 1984, p. 117; Cabezas 2008; firm's website; Roché 2009
Léon ROGER-MILÈS (1859-1928), art critic, author of the Paris 1908a catalogue.
Julius Bernhard von ROHR (1688–1742), scientist in Saxony. His Vollständiges Haußwirthschafftsbuch, Leipzig, 1751, p. 1419, includes a section on the preparation of "trockene Farben".
Alexander ROSLIN (1718-1793), pioneer in oil pastel, probably using the Pellechet process.
Jean-André ROUQUET (1701–1758), Swiss enamelist who visited London and published L'État des arts en Angleterre, 1754, translated as The present state of the arts in England, London, 1755, commenting on English disapproval of pastel. It was followed by L'Art nouveau de la peinture en fromage, an investigation of ways of painting worse than those already existing. He died insane at Charenton.
Charles-Antoine de ROUOT (Saint-Mihiel, Meuse 1752-1816) submitted a Begutachtung von Pastellmalereien to the Berlin Akademie session of 14.I.1797.
Jacques ROZE ( –1772), framemaker, maître-menuisier, reçu sculpteur de l'Académie de Saint-Luc, .vii.1752. He died in 1772 at rue de Charonne,
leaving five minor children. His widow was Anne-Marguerite Veran; she was remarried, to Louis-Alphonse Morizet, another menuisier.
Lit.: Harden 1998
Rupelvoer, v. Pourvoyeur
RUPRECHT von der Pfalz (Prague 1619 - London 1682)
John RUSSELL (1745-1806) described his methods in Elements of painting with crayons, 1772.
Dictionary, artists; collectors
Mrs William Wynn RYLAND, née Mary Brown (c.1740–p.1817). "Mrs Ryland, having removed from Oxford-street, to No. 102, in New-Bond-street, two doors from Brook-street, most respectfully solicits the continuance
of the same kind support she has hitherto been favoured with from her friends and the public" according to her advertisement in the
Times, 28.iii.1787, which adds that "Fine
crayons, and other materials for drawing, may be had." She was the widow of the royal engraver (and pioneer of stipple engraving)
William Wynn Ryland (?1732–1783), executed for forgery. They had married in 1758, and had six children.
Lit.: Angelo 1828, p. 482; Exeter working papers at bookhistory.blogspot.co.uk
Jean-André-Alphonse de SAINT-MARTIN (1797–1866) established (or succeeded Leroy in) a publishing and artists' supply business at 6 (later 4) rue de Seine, "A la palette de Rubens"; in 1825 he married Rosalie-Hélène Raveneau (1809–1860). Some sources suggest the business was originally established in 1785. The firm's stamp is found on the canvas of a later copy of La Tour, Marie Leszczynska.
Joseph, chevalier de SAINT-MICHEL (ﬂ. 1756-85), inventor of fixing method, which it is alleged he stole
from the principe di Sansevero (q.v.). It was submitted to Bachelier and Roslin at the Académie on 6.vi.1772, and offered by subscription.
ST PETERSBURG. According to an advertisement in the Санкт-Петербургские ведомости in 1794, a shop на Мойке в доме No 284 при пудреной фабрике offered various types of paper, parchment, and everything required to draw, including assorted coloured chalks.
William SALMON (1644–1713), at the Blew Balcony by Fleet-Ditch (an address shared with Alexander Browne, q.v.), a mountebank who described himself as "professor of physick",
published a compendium entitled Polygraphice: or the
arts of drawing etc. in 1672. It reached its fifth edition in 1685. The text largely matches Browne's 1675 Appendix.
"Le citoyen SALMON, rue de Thionville, ci-devant Dauphine, no. 26, à Paris" (near the rue Christine), advertised (among other artistic supplies such as
envelopes, which he popularised, and ink, which he made to the approval of the Académie royale des sciences, from as early as 1756), "boîtes de
crayons de pastel, de 6, 12, 20 et 24 l. la boîte" (Gazette nationale, 21.vii.1793, no. 202, supplément, p. 180; they were
previously advertised in the Mercure de France, .x.1786, supplément, p. 11). Some of the papetier's wares were marked with the étiquette
"Au Griffon"; he is also recorded "Au Portefeuille anglais". He was a member of the Jacobin Société des Amis de la constitution.
Around 1802 he or a homonym was briefly associated with Coiffier (q.v.). In 1803, "Niodot, f[abricant] Papetier" was advertising in the Journal de Paris from
26 rue de Thionville, "ancienne Maison Salmon". It is unclear if he was the printseller Salmon of 1306 rue des
Bons Enfans, passage Radziwille (1799, 1805), later (1813- ) at 1 Boulevard Montmartre.
Lit.: Grand-Carteret 1913
Matthew SANDERSON ([?1732–1786]), "chymist, colour-maker, and perfumer" advertised in the Manchester Mercury, 23.ix.1783 (and later dates), various wares including "Patent and other crayons" from his new shop at 53 King Street, Manchester. He was probably the "Matthew Sanderson, shopkeeper" who was buried in Warrington, 23.vi.1786, aged 54. He may be the chemist who successfully defended an action for nuisance from his neighbour at Green Lane, Sheffield in 1771. His son Thomas was admitted to Manchester Grammar School in 1783.
Sir William SANDERSON (1586–1676), historian, published Graphice: or, The use of the Pen and Pensil, in 1658; with details
"of Croyons or Dry-Colours, by Pastils or Powders; the way of making them, and working with them: with rare Receipts and Observations of the best
Masters of this Art." It was largely drawn from Norgate (q.v.).
Lit.: Edward Norgate, Miniatura, or the art of limning, c.1648-50, ed. Martin Hardie, Oxford, 1919, p. xxiii; Treatises
Charles SANDYS (c.1718-1786) by 1759, at Dirty Lane, Long Acre, 1760-63, as Sandys & Middleton, 79 Long Acre 1773-74, 81 St Martin's Lane
1778. Artists' colourmen; a trade card advertised that they "Make & Sell all Sorts of Crayons". According to Muntz 1760 (p. 116) the firm was the source
of "perfect sets" of the crayons required for the wax painting described in his treatise (no doubt he also supplied conventional pastels, but the phrase is frequently
quoted out of this narrow context).
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk; Barker & al. 2009, p. 113
Raimondo di Sangro, principe di SANSEVERO (Torremaggiore 1710 - Naples 1771), scientist, inventor, esotericist, soldier, freemason and
man of letters. He invented a process of fixing pastel described originally in Lalande's Voyage d'un François en Italie, fait dans les années 1765 & 1766,
Venice, 1769, VI, pp. 397–406; nouv. ed., Yverdon, 1769, VI, pp. 262–70 but later copied in numerous reference works.
Lit.: Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und der freyen Künste, IX/1, 1770, pp. 181f; Mariette 1851-60; Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 147f; Dictionary, artists, s.nn. Chaperon; Saint-Michel
Jacques SAVARY DES BRUSLONS (1657-1716), son of the celebrated economist; his Dictionnaire universel de commerce was published posthumously (Paris, 1723 and later editions).
M. SCHEPPERS, probably Louis-Joseph Scheppers (1734-1795), négociant, son of a marchand graissier, himself a future director of the chambre de
commerce, inventor of "l'art de fixer le pastel et de l'embellir même au lieu de l'altérer", which
he advertised in the Annonces, affiches et avis divers, 1755, and which he made available to Dachon (q.v.), a painter from Lille. His name appears in
an undated memorandum among the papers of Caroline Luise as "Monsieur Scheppert fils d'un Bourguimeaitre ou d'un Riche Marchand à Lille" who had recently published
a similar notice in the Gazette d'Hollande. Scheppers was probably the
father-in-law of Lancel l'aîné, the amateur who exhibited in the 1782 salon de Lille.
Lit.: Ratouis de Limay 1946, p. 149; Reuter 2015, pp. 119, 123 n.60; Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe FA 5 A Corr 98, 14
Charles SCHOFIELD (ﬂ. 1775-1808), 123 Aldersgate Street, London. Oil and colourman, house painter and gilder, advertised materials
including "fine crayons" (The gazetteer and new daily advertiser, 20.i.1783). As a painter-stainer he tok on apprentices from 1775.
Lit.: British Artists' Suppliers at npg.org.uk
Max SCHRADER (ﬂ. 1884–97), recorded as a Kunstmaler, active in Szeczecin and Madrid c.1884 and in Dresden, 22 Terrassenufer, 1897, where he copied Liotard's Chocoladen-Mädchen.
John SCOTT ( -1838), of 419 Strand, London, from 1782, sold materials for watercolours and drawings; advertised "Crayons in sets,
ditto of Swiss Crayon Pencils, a curious article, being in wood after the manner of Black-lead, in sets of 50 and 70, of all different
tints" (General evening post, 25.i.1783, 23.xii.1783, 6.i.1784); and "British & Swiss Crayons, & the true Italian Crayon Pencils, in sets
of every Colour, of which Scott is the only importer" (St James's chronicle, 12.viii.1788). Other advertvertisements in the Sun, 7.i.1793 etc. Listed as "crayon manufacturer"
(Wakefield's directory, 1790).
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Le sieur SEGUINEAU, aîné, négociant, in Saint-Domingue, advertised in Les Affiches americaines on 13.xii.1775 (p. 594) the receipt of varied merchandise from Paris, including "tableaux en pastel sur divers sujets".
Sellier, v. Cellier
Sennelier, v. Prevost
Michel-Simon SERIZE (1729–1785), rue Greneta, marchand épicier (maître 1755), who also sold pastels. His widow
Marie-Jeanne Marcault, daughter of a marchand orfèvre joaillier, married Louis-Marie Noel ( –1808), marchand de couleurs à Paris, described as a peintre on his posthumous inventory.
Lit.: Catalogue général des marchands épiciers-grossiers-droguistes, 1765; Almanach dauphin, 1776, cited Haroche-Bouzinac 2011, p.27; Catalogue général des marchands épiciers..., 1773; Registres de tutelles, AN Y5321, 22.xi.1785; Y5182A, 1.ix.1789
William SITTENHAM (1861–1938), restorer, including apparently of 18th century pastels, art dealer and real estate investor, active in New York, known from a printed sheet "Crayon and pastel portraits: restoring oil paintings a specialty".
Jean-Baptiste SLODTZ (1699-1759), peintre du duc d'Orléans, restorer and partner of Rémy (q.v.). He was married to Marie-Barbe Carlier; his brother was
René-Michel Slodtz, sculpteur du roi. A pastel by Carriera was among those he restored.
Lit.: Marandet 2003a
John SMIBERT (1688-1751), sold artists' materials, including chalks and crayons, in Boston.
William SMITH, of Norwich, colourman. Smith's Colour Manufactory, St Faith's Lane, Norwich, advertised various colours in the Norfolk chronicle, 15.viii.1789, including "Superfine CRAYONS, equal to the Swiss, single or in Setts, from 6s. to 21s. each." In 1792 it had moved to London Lane, and also dealt in pictures and prints. William Smith was declared bankrupt in 1798. The firm was unrelated to the London colourmen.
SMITH, WARNER & Co, a partnership between the experimental chemist, Charles Smith ( -1845) and Peter Warner ( -1824), 211 Piccadilly, London by 1800. Leading
artists' supplier; advertised a method for fixing soft crayon and chalk drawings (Morning herald, 25.vii.1800).
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
A. SOLARO SCHÜSS, framemaker, maître-ébeniste, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1922; Harden 1998
SOLVET (ﬂ. Paris 1760), marchand de couleurs: appears in the account book of Jean-Nicolas Vernezobre who owed him 217 livres, one of the pastel-maker's largest debts. He may have been the marchand épicier Jean-Pierre Solvet (1714–1783).
Eudore SOULIÉ (1817–1876), conservateur au musée de Versailles 1850–76; letter to the comte de Nieuwerkerke re Sorbet sale including La Tour Nollet.
SPEAKMAN & CARTER (ﬂ. 1774), of Market Street, Philadelphia, chemists and druggists, offered "a few sets of fine crayons to be disposed of low." (Pennsylvania journal, 29.vi.1774).
Francis STACY (ﬂ. 1769–85), artists' colourman, at The St Luke, corner of Long Acre, next to Drury Lane, London 1769-72, 39 Drury Lane 1773,
Long Acre 1774-1785, 76 Long Acre 1777. A trade card includes crayons.
Lit.: British artists' suppliers at npg.org.uk
Friedrich STAEDTLER commenced the manufacture of graphite pencils in Nürnberg in 1662. J. S. Staedtler introduced coloured oil pastel pencils in 1834 and exhibited pastels and crayons at the Exposition universelle de Paris, 1867.
STANLEY (ﬂ. London c.1764–69), artist and inventor.
Thomas STARKEY (ﬂ. London c.1798–1830), stationer, of 31 Newgate Street, mentioned (as Starkey & Crips) by Hayter for preparing vellum. The firm was still active in 1840.
William STORER (ﬂ. London 1777–90), optician, of Great Marlborough Street, and Lisle Street, London, invented the Royal Accurate Delineator, a technically superior camera obscura, using
three lenses and and a system of adjustable boxes, designed to work without the need for sunlight; it was patented in 1778, but mentioned by
Horace Walpole in a letter to Henry Seymour Conway of 16.ix.1777. In 1783 Storer published a Syllabus, to a course of optical experiments
for use with the instrument; it contained a lengthy list of patrons. Several pastellists, including Mrs Adams, Bateman, Dobson and Guest
(qq.v.), mentioned it in advertisements. Nevertheless Storer was made bankrupt in 1784; an auction of his stock and personal effects took place on
4.vi.1785, including optical and musical instruments, prints and paintings.
Lit.: Clercq 2008; John H. Hammond, "The royal accurate delineator", The photographic collector, V, 1984, pp. 181ff;
Bernard-Augustin STOUPAN (1701-1775), celebrated pastel-maker of Lausanne.
John Stackhouse STYLES (1725–1761), of King Street, Cheapside, London, stationer, credited with introducing silk paper for drawing in chalk and pastel c.1759 (copying similar papers made in France).
Lit.: Krill 1996
Othon Guillaume STRUVE [Wilhelm Otto Struve] (Jena 1719 – Lausanne 1772), apothecary, professor of chemistry in Lausanne where he settled c.1745:
author of Patriotische Vorschläge und practische Untersuchungen die Chymie, Medicin und Wirthschaft betreffend, Basel, 1771, and the similar
Essais ou réflexions intéressantes relatives à la chymie, Lausanne, 1772, which both mention Stoupan and Loriot. According to Reifenstein, Stoupan owed
much of his knowledge to him.
Lit.: Lausanne 2018, pp. 57ff
Johann Georg SULZER (1720-1779), Mathematiker und Philosoph, author of Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, 1771-74; rev. ed., Frankfurt & Leipzig, 1798; the article on pastel (III, p. 718f), after mentioning La Tour, Liotard, Mengs and the collection of Rosalba at Dresden, includes a simple recipe for pastel, but notes "Aber die beste Zubereitung der Pastelfarben ist doch ein Geheimniß". Sulzer's observations on pastel reappear in several other texts, notably by Christian Friedrich Prange, Die Schule der Mahlerey, 1782, and Joseph Friedrich von Racknitz, Briefe über die Kunst an eine Freundinn, 1795.
Mrs John SURTEES, née Elizabeth Thompson Royal (1828-p.1877), of Higher Broughton, Manchester: her pastel copies of two Russell portraits are at Chatsworth. In 1872 she married the Newcastle-upon-Tyne landscape painter John Surtees, the son of a butcher. He was evidently the painter who exhibited from 1843 on. Mrs Surtees exhibited a landscape at the Royal Academy in 1877 from 111 Gower Street.
Edmond-Antoine-Anne TAPISSIER (1861–1943), artist and illustrator, made pastel copies of the anonymous pastels of M. & Mme Dupin.
The Tarif des Douanes nationales de France, decreed by the Assemblée nationale, 31.i.1791, imposed an import duty of 5 livres le quintal on all "crayons en pastel & autres de toutes sortes". A decree of 15.viii.1752 imposed a duty on glass for pastels: "Ordonne au surplus Sa Majesté que les Verres blancs coulés en table sans boudines, propres à estampes & peintures en pastel, continueront de payer à l'entrée du Royaume, tant des Cinq Grosses Fermes, que des Provinces réputés étrangères, trente livres de quintal; & qu'à cet effet les Marchands & Voituriers seront tenus de les mettre dans des caisses séparées, & de déclarer le poids desdites caisses, sous peine de confiscation, & de pareille amends de trois cent livres."
Taylor, v. Regnier
Domenico Marchi TEMPESTI (c.1655-1737), provided an important account of his teacher Nanteuil's practices.
Louis THIBAULT DE MONTIGNY (c.1695-p.1791), peintre, sculpteur, was located in the rue de la Mortellerie at the time of his marriage, 26.vii.1716 (to Madeleine-Catherine Go), and at quai Pelletier at the time his son was married, 22.i.1741. He had moved to the rue de la Verrerie, aux Armes de France, when he advertised in L'Avant-Coureur, 11.viii.1766, p. 500f, announcing a new composition for sculpture, suitable for decorating picture frames. It is evidently the same as the mastic described in Duchesne's Dictionnaire de l'industrie, Paris, 1776, II, p. 417. In his notice in L'Avant-Coureur, 27.i.1772, pp. 52-54 he added that he also mounted prints, pastels and plans under glass with gilt frames at scheduled fees ranging from 2 livres for an 8x7 pouces picture with a 1 pouce frame to 56 livres for a 36x30 pouce frame of 2 pouces width. By 1789 he had removed to 102 rue de la Tixeranderie.
Johann Alexander THIELE (1685-1752), credited by some sources as the inventor of pastel.
Hélène-Louise THOMASSET (1710-1782), from Agiez, near Orbe, Vaud. Mlle Thomasset accompanied her widowed mother and her sisters
to London in 1749, where they set up a school for young ladies at 18 Great Marlborough Street. In 1764 Helene bought an annuity on Bank of England stock.
She is said to have taken up embroidery at an advanced age, possibly under the influence of Mary Linwood (q.v.) she worked in a similar manner,
reproducing paintings by old and modern masters. Liotard stayed in London nearby in 1772-74, and she copied Liotard's 1773 self-portrait which was acquired by Lord Bessborough.
The correspondence of her nephew, the botanist Edmund Davall, provides biographical details and references unknown to R&L, and reveals that the family
remained in contact with the Ponsonby family in the 1790s.
Lit.: Humbert & al. 1897; Fosca 1956, pp. 104; R&L p. 590; Gavin Rylands de Beer, "Edmund Davall, F.L.S., an unwritten English chapter in the history of Swiss botany", Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, CLIX, 1947, pp. 42-65; "Thomasset", Notes & queries, 1949, 1950; Fischer 2007; Neil Jeffares, Mlle Thomasset, 2016
C. TIMMANN-DELFOW (ﬂ. Dresden 1908), copyist of old master pictures in oil and pastel, made a copy of a Rosalba's La Giustizia e la Pace.
Denis TOUPILLIER (ﬂ. 1764–91), framemaker, reçu maître-ébéniste 30.vii.1764, rue Jean-Beausire, then rue des Tournelles, Paris.
Lit.: Vial 1912; Harden 1998
Maurice TOURNEUX (1849–1917), archiviste, bibliographe et historien de l'art.
André TRAMBLIN, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris, no doubt connected with the peintre de l'Académie de Saint-Luc ( –1742),
who is described in one document as a maître-peintre de bordures.
Lit.: Harden 1998
G. H. TUCKER, established 1791, fine art dealer and picture frame manufacturer, 9 Broad Street, Bath: frame on Russell, Hibbert.
Robert Samuel TULL (c.1731-1758), carver and gilder, apprenticed to Jacob Gosset (q.v.), in 1745. His account books include pastels for Katherine Read.
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Sir Théodore TURQUET DE MAYERNE (1573-1655), Swiss physician and chemist, active at the court of James I in London, author of an early treatise Pictoria, sculptoria, tinctoria & quae subalternarum artium spectantia (1620-46; British Library, MS Sloane 2052) with recipe for pastel fixative.
Lit.: Meder 1923
Léandre VAILLAT (1878-1952), écrivain, critique de danse et de l'art, co-author of works on pastels with Paul Ratouis de Limay (q.v.).
Gerard VANDERGUCHT, Jr (1739-c.1770).
Dictionary, artists s.v. Gerard Van der Gucht
Hans Christian Hansen, kaldet VANTORE (Kettinge, Lolland 1861 – Copenhagen 1928), Danish pastellist who copied numerous old master portraits, often to a very high standard.
Edgar John VARLEY (1839–1888), London, copied two Russell pastels in 1882.
François-Antoine VASSÉ (1681-1736), sculpteur du roi. Frames on Lundberg pastels commissioned by Niclas Peter von Gedda, 1728.
Lit.: Laine & Brown 2006
T.-S. VASSEUR, framemaker, maître-menuisier, Paris. His mark appears alongside Levert's on an oval frame for a pastel copy after Leprince.
Lit.: Harden 1998
Henri VERNE (1880–1949), directeur des musées nationaux 1926–40.
George VERTUE (1684-1756), art historian and early commentator on the vogue for pastels (1742).
Thomas VIALLS (1719-1781), London carver and gilder; framed two pastels by Read for James Grant of Grant (1764).
Lit.: British picture framemakers at npg.org.uk
Marc VIBERT (ﬂ. Parma 1754), framemaker active in Parma (presumably of French origin), responsible for the series of eight frames for the Liotard royal portraits in the Stupinigi.
Lit.: R&L p. 377; González-Palacios 1996
VICARS BROTHERS, Lovell William (1868-1943), John Major and nephew Herbert Percival Vicars (1880-1953), son of Edward Hazell Vicars (1853-1918) fine art dealers of Old Bond Street, London, established in 1874; they also supplied copies of pastels for Duveen.
Paul VIGNA (1856–1942), restaurateur de dessins et d'estampes à Paris.
Lit.: Volle & al. 2020
Charles, marquis de VILLETTE (1736–1793), soldier, admirer of Voltaire, salon critic.
Pierre VILLIERS (1760-1849), auteur, salon critic.
Arnauld VINCENT DE MONTPETIT (1713-1800), artist and inventor.
Jacques VIVIEN ( –p.1709), sculpteur sur bois, reçu 1683 by the Académie de Saint-Luc. The picture-frame-maker was paid 174 livres by the Bâtiments du roi on 7.xi.1700 for three frames of the portraits of the royal princes by his brother, Joseph Vivien (q.v.). Jacques Vivien also worked for the duchesse de Nemours, and was owed 1629 livres on her death in 1707: MC VIII/879, 20.I.1708.
Giovanni Battista VOLPATO (1633-1706), painter, mathematician and philosopher; experimented with pastel binders around 1670.
Lit.: Meder 1919, p. 135
George WALKER (ﬂ. Edinburgh 1781-1815), pastellist. His "Directions for painting landscape in crayons" appeared posthumously
in The Scots magazine, LXXVIII, .ii.1816, pp. 104-5.
John WALKER (ﬂ. London 1776-1802), "Carver, Gilder, & Printseller, No.28, Hay Market (N.B. from Parliament Street) makes all sorts of Glass & Picture Frames, Girandoles, &c. Sells Crayons, Water Colours, all kinds of Chalk, Pencils, &c. for Drawing. N.B. Boxes of Colours ready prepar'd." according to his trade card.
Parry WALTON ( -1702), restorer of the King's pictures. In 1675 he was living at 2 Lincoln's Inn Fields.
Dictionary, artists, s.n. Greenhill; Survey of London; British picture restorers at npg.org.uk
Claude-Henri WATELET (1718-1786).
Mr WATERS, Newcastle, retailed Mr Riley's crayons in 1788. (Newcastle courant, 25.x.1788)
Jean-Félix WATIN (1728-1804), art supplier from his shop in Paris, à la Renommée, carré de la porte Saint-Martin; he appears as the author of the
L'Art du peintre, doreur, vernisseur, published in 1772 with numerous subsequent editions, but in fact written by Roch-Henri Prévost de
Saint-Lucien (1730-1808), a lawyer and author on a wide range of subjects. It included a stock list with prices, including (p. 348) Grandes
boîtes de pastel assorties, for 12 livres, with petites boîtes for 8. Watin was married to Marie-Jeanne Paulus.
Lit.: Chatelus 1991, p. 80; Lowengard 2008
Edward Façon WATSON (1804-1892), London dealer and restorer until 1877. Advertised "crayon drawings carefully restored" (The artists' directory 1875, p.190).
Lit.: British picture restorers at npg.org.uk
Werner, v. Haid
Ann WILLIAMS (ﬂ. London 1768-83), pastellist, "makes and sells crayons".
Auguste WILLIOT (1829-1865), peintre et pastelliste, Saint-Quentin, said by Dréolle de Nodon 1856 (p. 134) to have produced highly regarded copies after La Tour.